Advertisement

Kinship Matters: An Immodest Proposal

  • Linda Marie RouillardEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)

Abstract

This chapter traces the narrative history of the incest motif used in various mythologies and summarizes anthropological and medieval definitions of incest, which are central to cultural identity, but which can vary across different cultures and historical periods. It also considers incestuous behavior allowed to the elite, as well as the strategic, political uses of claims of incest to exit undesirable, or no longer useful unions, or to denigrate enemies. This discussion informs our analysis of La Manekine and its use of the incest motif to consider such issues as the selection of marriage partners and inheritance.

References

  1. Adamson, P.B. “Consanguinous [sic] Marriages in the Ancient World.” Folklore 93 (1982): 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akehurst, F.R.P, translator. The Coutumes de Beauvaisis of Philippe de Beaumanoir. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel. New York: Free Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. Archibald, Elizabeth. “Flight from Incest: Two Late Classical Precursors of the Constance Theme.” Chaucer Review 20 (1986): 259–272.Google Scholar
  5. ———. “Gold in the Dungheap: Incest Stories and Family Values in the Middle Ages.” Journal of Family History 22 (April 1997): 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———. Incest and the Medieval Imagination. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  7. ———. “Incest in Medieval Literature and Society.” Forum for Modern Language Studies 25 (1989): 1–15.Google Scholar
  8. Arens, W. The Original Sin: Incest and Its Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  9. Ariès, Philippe and Georges Duby, editors. A History of Private Life. Translated by A. Goldhammer. Cambridge: Belknap, 1988, Volume II.Google Scholar
  10. Augustine. City of God. Introduction by Etienne Gilson. Translated by Gerald Walsh. New York: Doubleday, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. Baldwin, John. The Language of Sex: Five Voices from Northern France Around 1200. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. Bittles, Alan.“Commentary: The Background and Outcomes of the First-Cousin Marriage Controversy in Great Britain.” International Journal of Epidemiology 38 (December 2009): 1453–1458. https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/38/6/1453/673854. Accessed February 24, 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. “Genetic Aspects of Inbreeding and Incest.” In Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo. Edited by Arthur P. Wolf and William H. Durham. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005. 38–60.Google Scholar
  14. Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society, Volume I: The Growth of Ties of Dependence. Translated by L.A. Manyon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  15. Bloch, R. Howard. Etymologies and Genealogies: A Literary Anthropology of the French Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  16. Bonnet-Laborderie, Philipe, editor. Actes du Colloque International Philippe de Beaumanoir et les Coutumes de Beauvaisis. Beauvais: Groupe d’étude des monuments et oeuvres d’art du Beauvaisis, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. Bordier, Henri-Louis. Philippe de Rémi, Sire de Beaumanoir: Jurisconsulte et Poète National du Beauvaisis. Paris: Techener, 1869; Geneva: Slatkine, rpt. 1980.Google Scholar
  18. Boswell, John. The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York: Vintage, 1988.Google Scholar
  19. Bouchard, Constance B. “Consanguinity and Noble Marriages in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries.” Speculum 56 (April 1981): 268–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brewer, E. Chobham. Dictionary of Miracles. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1896.Google Scholar
  21. Brooke, Christopher. The Medieval Idea of Marriage. Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  23. Brown-Grant, Rosalind. French Romance of the Later Middle Ages: Gender, Morality, and Desire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  24. Brundage, James. “The Canon Law of Divorce in the Mid-Twelfth Century: Louis VII C. Eleanor of Aquitaine.” In Eleanor of Acquitaine: Lord and Lady. Edited by Bonnie Wheeler and John Carmi Parson. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ———. Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  26. ———. Medieval Canon Law. London: Longman, 1995.Google Scholar
  27. Butler, Judith. Antigoneʼs Claim: Kinship between Life and Death. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, Emma. Medieval Saintsʼ Lives: The Gift, Kinship and Community in Old French Hagiography. Woodbridge, UK, 2008.Google Scholar
  29. Carmichael, Calum. Sex and Religion in the Bible. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  30. Coutumes de Beauvaisis of Philippe de Beaumanoir. Translated by F.R.P. Akehurst. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1992.Google Scholar
  31. D’Avray, David. “Annulment of Henry III’s ʻMarriage’ to Joan of Ponthieu Confirmed by Innocent IV on 20 May 1254.” In Medieval Christianity in Practice. Edited by Miri Rubin. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009. 42–49.Google Scholar
  32. ———. Medieval Marriage: Symbols & Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  33. De Jong, Mayke. “To the Limits of Kinship: Anti-Incest Legislation in the Early Medieval West (500–900).” In From Sappho to de Sade: Moments in the History of Sexuality. Edited by Jan Bremmer. London: Routledge, 1989. 36–59.Google Scholar
  34. Demony, Patrick. Notre-Dame de Reims: Sanctuaire de la monarchie sacrée. Italie: Instituto Grafico Bertello, CNRS éditions, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. Dictionnaire de théologie catholique. Edited by A. Vacant and E. Mangenot. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1923.Google Scholar
  36. Donahue, Jr., Charles. Law, Marriage, and Society in the Later Middle Ages: Arguments About Marriage in Five Courts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  37. Duby, Georges. The Knight, the Lady, and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. Translated by Barbara Bray. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  38. Dufournet, Jean, et al., editors. Un Roman à découvrir: Jehan et Blonde de Philippe de Remy. Geneva: Slatkine, 1991.Google Scholar
  39. Duggan, Charles. “Equity and Compassion: Papal Marriage Decretals to England.” In Love and Marriage in the Twelfth Century. Edited by W. Van Hoecke and Andries Welkenhuysen. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  40. Dunton-Downer, Leslie. “The Horror of Culture: East West Incest in Chrétien de Troyesʼs Cligés.New Literary History 28.2 (1997): 367–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Durkheim, Emile. Incest: The Nature and Origin of the Taboo. Translated by Edward Sagarin. New York: Lyle Stuart, Inc., 1963.Google Scholar
  42. Engel, Pál. The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. London: I.B. Tauris, 2005.Google Scholar
  43. Facinger, Marion F. “A Study of Medieval Queenship: Capetian France 987–1234.” In Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, vol. V. Edited by William Bowsky. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1968. 3–47.Google Scholar
  44. Fenster, Thelma. “Beaumanoirʼs La Manekine: Kin D(r)ead: Incest, Doubling, and Death.” American Imago 39 (Spring 1982): 41–58.Google Scholar
  45. Ferrante, Joan M. Woman as Image in Medieval Literature from the Twelfth Century to Dante. New York: Columbia, 1975.Google Scholar
  46. Flandrin, Jean-Louis. Families in Former Times: Kinship, Household and Sexuality. Translated by Richard Southern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  47. Fox, Robin. The Red Lamp of Incest: An Enquiry into the Origins of Mind and Society. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  48. ———. Kinship and Marriage. Middlesex, UK: Penguin, 1967.Google Scholar
  49. Gardner, Jane F. Women in Roman Law and Society. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  50. Gerald of Wales. The History and Topography of Ireland. Translated by John J. OʼMeara. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
  51. ———. The Journey Through Wales and The Description of Wales. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. Middlesex: Penguin, 1978.Google Scholar
  52. Gicquel, Bernard. “Le Jehan et Blonde de Philippe de Rémi peut-il être une source du Willehalm von Orlens?” Romania 102 (1981): 303–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goody, Jack. The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  54. Griffin, Miranda, “Writing Out the Sin: Arthur, Charlemagne and the Spectre of Incest,” Neophilologus 88 (2004): 499–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guerreau-Jalabert, Anita. “Grégoire ou le double inceste: le rôle de la parenté comme enjeu (XIIe-XIXe siècles).” Réception et identification du conte depuis le Moyen Age. Edited by M. Zink et X. Ravier. Toulouse: Université de Toulouse-Le Mirail, 1987. 21–49.Google Scholar
  56. Halsall, Paul, editor. Medieval Sourcebook: Twelfth Ecumenical Council, Lateran IV 1215, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/lateran4.asp. Accessed July 4, 2012.
  57. Herlihy, David. “The Family and Religious Ideologies in Medieval Europe.” Journal of Family History 12 (1987): 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ———. “Making Sense of Incest: Women and the Marriage Rules of the Early Middle Ages.” In Law, Custom and the Social Fabric in Medieval Europe. Essays in Honor of Bryce Lyon. Edited by Bernard S. Bachrach and David Nicholas. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publication, 1990. 1–16.Google Scholar
  59. ———. Women, Family and Society in Medieval Europe. Providence: Berghahn, 1995.Google Scholar
  60. Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Selincourt. London: Penguin, 1954; rpt. 1988.Google Scholar
  61. Hildegard of Bingen. Scivias. Translated by Mother Columba Hart and Jane Bishop. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  62. Hine, Daryl. Ovidʼs Heroines: A Verse Translation of the Heroïdes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  63. Huet, G. “Les Sources de La Manekine de Philippe de Beaumanoir.” Romania 45 (1889–1919): 94–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hunt, Lynn. “The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution.” In The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies. Edited by Gary Kates. New York: Routledge, 1998; 2nd ed. 2006. 206–207.Google Scholar
  65. Johnson, Cynthia. “Marriage Agreements from Twelfth-Century Southern France.” In To Have and to Hold: Marrying and Its Documentation in Western Christendom. Edited by Philip L. Reynolds and John Witte, Jr. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 215–259.Google Scholar
  66. Justinian’s Institutes. Translated by Peter Birks and Grant McLeod. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  67. King, David. “Learning from Loss: Amputation in Three Thirteenth-Century French Verse Romances.” Modern Philology (2012): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Klaniczay, Gábor. Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses: Dynastic Cults in Medieval Central Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  69. Laws of the Salian Franks. Translated by Katherine Fischer Drew. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  70. Leavitt, C. “Sociobiological Explanations of Incest Avoidance: A Critical Review of Evidential Claims.” American Anthropologist 92 (1990): 971–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Le Bras, Gabriel. “Le Mariage dans la théologie et le droit de lʼéglise du XIe au XIIIe siècle.” Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale 2 (June 1968): 191–202.Google Scholar
  72. LeGros, Hugette. “Parenté naturelle, alliance, parentés spirituelle: de lʼinceste à la sainteté.” Les Relations de Parenté dans le Monde Médiéval. Aix: CUERM, 1989. 511–548.Google Scholar
  73. Lévi-Strauss, Claude. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Translated by J.H. Bell, J.R. von Sturmer, and R. Needham. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  74. Livingstone, Amy. Out of Love for My Kin: Aristocratic Family Life in the Lands of the Loire, 1000– 1200. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  75. Lombard, Peter. The Sentences. Translated by Giulio Silano. Toronto, ON: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2010.Google Scholar
  76. Lucas, Angela. Women in the Middle Ages: Religion, Marriage and Letters. New York: St. Martinʼs Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  77. Manselli, Raoul. “Vie Familiale et Ethique Sexuelle dans les Pénitentiels.” In Famille et Parenté dans lʼOccident Médiéval, Actes du Colloque de Paris (6–8 juin, 1974). Edited by Georges Duby and J. LeGoff. Rome: Ecole Française, 1977. 363–378.Google Scholar
  78. Marie de France. Lais. Translated by Laurence Harf-Lancner. Edited by Karl Warnke. Paris: Livre de Poche, 1990.Google Scholar
  79. McCabe, Richard. Incest, Drama and Natureʼs Law 1550–1700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  80. McLaughlin, Megan. “ʻAbominable Minglingʼ: Father-Daughter Incest and the Law.” Medieval Feminist Newsletter 24 (1997): 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Medieval Handbooks of Penance: A Translation of the PrincipalLibri Poenitentialesand Selections from Related Documents. Edited by John T. McNeill and Helena M. Gamer. New York: Octagon Books, 1938; 1965.Google Scholar
  82. Middleton, Roger. “The History of BNF FR. 1588.” In Philippe de Rémi, Le Roman de la Manekine. Edited and translated by Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.Google Scholar
  83. Middleton, Russell. “Brother-Sister and Father-Daughter Marriage in Ancient Egypt.” American Sociological Review 27 (October 1962): 603–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mitterauer, Michael. “Christianity and Endogamy.” Continuity and Change 6 (1991): 295–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murray, Jacqueline, editor. Love, Marriage and Family in the Middle Ages: A Reader. Peterborough, ON, 2001.Google Scholar
  86. Ovid. Metamorphoses, vol. IV. Translated by Frank Justus Miller. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  87. Pagels, Elaine. Adam, Eve, and the Serpent. New York: Random House, 1988.Google Scholar
  88. Paris, Gaston and Ulysse Robert, editors. Miracles de Nostre Dame par personnages, vol. V. Paris: Librairie de Firmin Didot et Cie, 1880.Google Scholar
  89. Parsons, John Carmi. “Introduction: Family, Sex, and Power: The Rhythms of Medieval Queenship.” In Medieval Queenship. Edited by John Carmi Parsons. New York: St. Martinʼs Press, 1993. 1–11.Google Scholar
  90. Payen, Jean-Charles. Le Motif du repentir dans la littérature française médiévale des origines à 1230. Genève: Libraire Droz, 1968.Google Scholar
  91. Philippe de Beaumanoir: La Manekine. Translated by Christiane Marchello-Nizia. Paris: Stock, 1980.Google Scholar
  92. Philippe de Rémi. Le Roman de la Manekine. Edited and translated by Barbara Sargent-Baur. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.Google Scholar
  93. Putter, Ad. “The Narrative Logic of Emaré.” In The Spirit of Medieval English Popular Romance. Edited by Ad Putter and Jane Gilbert. Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited: 2000. 157–180.Google Scholar
  94. Rank, Otto. The Incest Theme in Literature and Legend: Fundamentals of a Psychology of Literary Creation. Translated by Gregory C. Richter. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  95. Raymond of Penyafort. Summa on Marriage. Translated by Pierre Payer. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2005.Google Scholar
  96. Reynolds, Philip Lyndon. How Marriage Became One of the Sacraments: The Sacramental Theology of Marriage from Its Medieval Origins to the Council of Trent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  97. ———. Marriage in the Western Church: The Christianization of Marriage During the Patristic and Early Medieval Periods. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2001.Google Scholar
  98. Rickert, Edith, editor. The Romance of Emaré. London: Early English Text Society, 1908.Google Scholar
  99. Robert of Flamborough. Liber poenitentialis. Edited by J.J. Francis Firth. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studiesm, 1971.Google Scholar
  100. Rouillard, Linda Marie. “Playing with Romance: A Fourteenth-Century Dramatic Adaptation of La Manekine.” Le Moyen Français 48 (2001): 77–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Roussel, Claude. “Aspects du père incestueux dans la littérature médiévale.” In Amour, mariage et transgressions au moyen âge. Edited by Danielle Buschinger and André Crépin. Göppingen: Kümmerle Verlag, 1984. 47–62.Google Scholar
  102. Sabean, David Warren and Simon Teuscher. “Kinship in Europe: A New Approach to Long-Term Development.” In Kinship in Europe: A New Approach to Long Term Development. Edited by David Warren Sabean and Teuscher. Berghahn Books, 2007. 1–32.Google Scholar
  103. Scheidel, Walter. “Brother-Sister and Parent-Child Marriage Outside Royal Families in Ancient Egypt and Iran: A Challenge to the Sociobiological View of Incest Avoidance?” Ethology and Sociobiology 17 (1996): 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shepherd, M. Tradition and Re-creation in Thirteenth-Century Romance: ʻLa Manekineʼ and ʻJehan et Blondeʼ by Philippe de Rémi. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1990.Google Scholar
  105. Stones, Alison. “The Manuscript, Paris BNF FR. 1588, and Its Illustrations.” In Philippe de Rémi, Le Roman de la Manekine. Edited and translated by Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.Google Scholar
  106. Suchier, Hermann. Oeuvres Poétiques de Philippe de Rémi. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1884.Google Scholar
  107. Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Translated by Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 1957.Google Scholar
  108. Taylor, Craig. “The Salic Law and the Valois Succession to the French Crown.” French History 15 (2001): 358–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Turner, Ralph V. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen of France Queen of England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.Google Scholar
  110. Ueltschi, Karin. La main coupée: métonymie et mémoire mythique. Paris: Champion, 2010.Google Scholar
  111. Vitz, Evelyn Birge. “The Impact of Christian Doctrine on Medieval Literature.” In A New History of French Literature. Edited by Denis Hollier. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. 82–88.Google Scholar
  112. Wade, Nicholas. “In Darwin Family, Evidence of Inbreedingʼs Ill Effects.” The New York Times, May 4, 2010, https://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/science/04darwin.html. Accessed February 24, 2019.
  113. Wagner, Roy. “Incest and Identity: A Critique and Theory on the Subject of Exogamy and Incest Prohibition.” Man 7 (December 1972): 601–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wemple, Suzanne and JoAnn McNamara. “Marriage and Divorce in the Frankish Kingdom.” In Women in Medieval Society. Edited by Susan Mosher Stuard. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1976. 95–124.Google Scholar
  115. Worby, Sam. Law and Kinship in Thirteenth-Century England. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of ToledoToledoUSA

Personalised recommendations