Perioperative Risk Models

  • Chad M. CraigEmail author
  • Matthew L. Buchalter
  • Craig Basman
  • Emily S. Wang
  • Michael Shoffeitt
  • C. Ronald MacKenzie


Over the past 80 years, various risk models have been published attempting to aid clinical decision-making in the perioperative period. The primary goal of such models is to objectively classify risks numerically or into categories that can be readily understood by clinicians and patients. Some models have been extrapolated from nonsurgical patient populations, whereas others have been derived and validated solely in surgical cohorts. The scope of perioperative medicine is broad, and a discussion of risks surrounding the surgical period can vary from general statements noting whether patients are acceptable candidates, to detailed problem-specific discussions. We present here an outline of key preoperative models developed over time. These models relay general risk assessments as well as problem- and specialty-specific assessments.


Perioperative risk Preoperative risk Risk model Risk score Preoperative assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chad M. Craig
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Matthew L. Buchalter
    • 1
    • 2
  • Craig Basman
    • 4
  • Emily S. Wang
    • 5
    • 6
  • Michael Shoffeitt
    • 6
  • C. Ronald MacKenzie
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Perioperative MedicineHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineWeill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Orthopedics, Division of Spine SurgeryHospital for Special SurgeryNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyLenox Hill HospitalNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Department of MedicineSan AntonioUSA
  6. 6.University of Texas Health San Antonio, Department of Medicine/Division of General and Hospital MedicineSan AntonioUSA
  7. 7.Departments of Rheumatology and Medicine the Hospital for Special Surgery Weill Cornell MedicineNew YorkUSA

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