Statistics: Setting the Stage

  • M. Abdullah Arain
  • Adil H. HaiderEmail author
  • Zain G. Hashmi
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)


This chapter introduces fundamental statistical concepts in the design of clinical trials that must be considered early on in the planning phases of a project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Abdullah Arain
    • 1
  • Adil H. Haider
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zain G. Hashmi
    • 2
  1. 1.Aga Khan University Medical CollegeKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of SurgerySinai Hospital of BaltimoreBaltimoreUSA

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