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The registration of the first antiretroviral medication (Zidovudine/AZT) by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987 marked a turning point in the management of people living with HIV. The addition of other drugs within the same class as AZT and discovery of new ART classes has resulted in the current era of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART), which changed HIV into a chronic medical condition. Expansion of global ART access has allowed 21.7 million HIV-infected people to access ART by 2017. The goal of the World Health Organisation (WHO) 90:90:90 program is to get 90% of people living with HIV to know their status, 90% of people diagnosed with HIV started on ART and 90% of those on ART to be virally suppressed. The ultimate aim is to maintain high levels of viral suppression in the population thereby decreasing the transmission risks and new HIV-infections with the aim of controlling the HIV epidemic. This chapter further describes the antiretroviral management of children with HIV.
KeywordsAntiretroviral treatment Antiretroviral drugs Children Paediatrics Adolescents
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