Advertisement

What We Know About the Greenability of Reality Technologies: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Alireza Khakpour
  • Mary Sánchez-GordónEmail author
  • Ricardo Colomo-Palacios
Chapter
  • 209 Downloads
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

Information Technology (IT) is crucial for many innovations in products, services, and processes around the globe. However, IT is growing in importance in the share of energy consumption in the world. As a reaction to this negative effect, the so-called Green IT movement emerged. This field of study is aimed to reduce IT-related energy consumption and overall IT environmental impact including a variety of aspects like power consumption, lower carbon emissions and their environmental impact. One of the leading technologies in the IT arena is Reality technologies including Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR). These technologies have impacted sectors like Real Estate, Education, Healthcare, Marketing, Travel and Manufacturing, citing just some of the most relevant application areas. Taking into account the importance of these technologies and the expected impact in the future, authors conducted a systematic literature review devoted to investigate their “greenability”. Authors are aware of the importance of the topic and aim to identify, evaluate, and synthesize research published concerning aspects like energy consumption and eco-effectiveness of main reality technologies. By searching five major bibliographic databases, 5596 articles related to the topic were identified and 49 of these papers were selected as primary studies.

Keywords

Sustainability Greenability Eco-effectiveness Eco-friendly Virtual reality Augmented reality Mixed reality 

References

  1. Al-Shuwaili, A., & Simeone, O. (2017). Energy-efficient resource allocation for mobile edge computing-based augmented reality applications. IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 6(3), 398–401.  https://doi.org/10.1109/LWC.2017.2696539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amici, T. T., Filho, P. H., & Campo, A. B. (2018). Augmented reality applied to a wireless power measurement system of an industrial 4.0 advanced manufacturing line. In 2018 13th IEEE International Conference on Industry Applications (INDUSCON), pp. 1402–1406.  https://doi.org/10.1109/INDUSCON.2018.8627301.
  3. Andrae, A. (2017, October). Total consumer power consumption forecast.Google Scholar
  4. Au, C. H., Yiu, W. K., & Fung, W. S. L. (2018). Emerging simulation and VR for green innovations: A Case study on promoting a zero-carbon emission platform in Hong Kong. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), pp. 1841–1845.  https://doi.org/10.1109/IEEM.2018.8607560.
  5. Behringer, R., Christian, J., Holzinger, A., & Wilkinson, S. (2007). Some usability issues of augmented and mixed reality for e-health applications in the medical domain. In A. Holzinger (Ed.), HCI and usability for medicine and health care (pp. 255–266). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bekaroo, G., Sungkur, R., Ramsamy, P., Okolo, A., & Moedeen, W. (2018). Enhancing awareness on green consumption of electronic devices: The application of augmented reality. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 30, 279–291.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2018.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benko, H., Ishak, E. W., & Feiner, S. (2004). Collaborative mixed reality visualization of an archaeological excavation. In Third IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 132–140.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR.2004.23.
  8. BrandonBray. (n.d.). What is mixed reality?—Mixed reality. Retrieved August 30, 2019, from https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/mixed-reality/mixed-reality.
  9. Bulman, J., Crabtree, B., Gower, A., Oldroyd, A., Lawson, M., & Sutton, J. (2004). Mixed reality applications in urban environments. BT Technology Journal, 22(3), 84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BTTJ.0000047123.94280.3a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakareski, J. (2019). UAV-IoT for next generation virtual reality. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 1–1.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2019.2921869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatzieleftheriou, L. E., Iosifidis, G., Koutsopoulos, I., & Leith, D. (2018). Towards resource-efficient wireless edge analytics for mobile augmented reality applications. In 2018 15th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), pp. 1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ISWCS.2018.8491206.
  12. Chen, H., Dai, Y., Meng, H., Chen, Y., & Li, T. (2018). Understanding the characteristics of mobile augmented reality applications. In 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS), pp. 128–138.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ISPASS.2018.00026.
  13. Chen, K., Li, T., Kim, H.-S., Culler, D. E., & Katz, R. H. (2018). MARVEL: enabling mobile augmented reality with low energy and low latency. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 292–304.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3274783.3274834.
  14. Chen, X., Jiao, L., Li, W., & Fu, X. (2016). Efficient multi-user computation offloading for mobile-edge cloud computing. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 24(5), 2795–2808.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TNET.2015.2487344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cho, K., Jang, H., Park, L. W., Kim, S., & Park, S. (2019). Energy management system based on augmented reality for human-computer interaction in a Smart City. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCE.2019.8662045.
  16. Choi, J., Park, S., & Ko, J. (2017). Analyzing head-mounted AR device energy consumption on a frame rate perspective. In 2017 14th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON), pp. 1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1109/SAHCN.2017.7964948.
  17. Chou, C.-C., Chiang, C.-T., Wu, P.-Y., Chu, C.-P., & Lin, C.-Y. (2017). Spatiotemporal analysis and visualization of power consumption data integrated with building information models for energy savings. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 123, 219–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ćwil, M., & Bartnik, W. (2019). Physically extended virtual reality (PEVR) as a new concept in railway driver training. In J. Y. C. Chen, & G. Fragomeni (Eds.), Virtual, augmented and mixed reality. Applications and case studies (pp. 230–242). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Dang, T., & Peng, M. (2019). Joint radio communication, caching, and computing design for mobile virtual reality delivery in fog radio access networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 37(7), 1594–1607.  https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2019.2916486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diguet, J.-P., Bergmann, N., & Morgère, J.-C. (2015). Dedicated object processor for mobile augmented reality—sailor assistance case study. EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, 2015(1), 1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13639-014-0019-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dolezal, J., Becvar, Z., & Zeman, T. (2016). Performance evaluation of computation offloading from mobile device to the edge of mobile network. In 2016 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN), pp. 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCN.2016.7785153.
  22. Eo, S., Lee, J. G., Kim, M., & Ko, Y. (2017). High performance and low power timing controller design for LCoS microdisplay system. In 2017 International SoC Design Conference (ISOCC), pp. 71–72.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ISOCC.2017.8368831.
  23. Fiorentino, M., de Amicis, R., Monno, G., & Stork, A. (2002). Spacedesign: a mixed reality workspace for aesthetic industrial design. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, p. 86. Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=850976.854976.
  24. Ge, X., Pan, L., Li, Q., Mao, G., & Tu, S. (2017). Multipath cooperative communications networks for augmented and virtual reality transmission. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 19(10), 2345–2358.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TMM.2017.2733461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glassner, A. S. (1989). An introduction to ray tracing. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  26. Ho, N., & Chui, C.-K. (2019). Monitoring energy consumption of individual equipment in a workcell using augmented reality technology. In A. H. Hu, M. Matsumoto, T. C. Kuo, & S. Smith (Eds.), Technologies and eco-innovation towards sustainability I: Eco design of products and services (pp. 65–74).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1181-9_6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hong, I., Kim, G., Kim, Y., Kim, D., Nam, B., & Yoo, H. (2015). A 27 mW reconfigurable marker-less logarithmic camera pose estimation engine for mobile augmented reality processor. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 50(11), 2513–2523.  https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2015.2463074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hughes, C. E., Stapleton, C. B., Hughes, D. E., & Smith, E. M. (2005). Mixed reality in education, entertainment, and training. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25(6), 24–30.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2005.139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jiang, N., Swaminathan, V., & Wei, S. (2017). Power evaluation of 360 VR video streaming on head mounted display devices. In Proceedings of the 27th Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video, pp. 55–60.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3083165.3083173.
  30. Karaman, A., Erisik, D., Incel, O. D., & Alptekin, G. I. (2016). Resource usage analysis of a sensor-based mobile augmented reality application. Procedia Computer Science, 83, 300–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.04.129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, G., Choi, S., & Yoo, H. (2015a). K-glass: Real-time markerless augmented reality smart glasses platform. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), pp. 1712–1717.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125344.
  32. Kim, G., Lee, K., Kim, Y., Park, S., Hong, I., Bong, K., & Yoo, H. (2015b). A 1.22 TOPS and 1.52 mW/MHz augmented reality multicore processor with neural network NoC for HMD applications. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 50(1), 113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2014.2352303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim, M. J., Lee, J. H., Wang, X., & Kim, J. T. (2015c). Health smart home services incorporating a MAR-based energy consumption awareness system. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 79(3), 523–535.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10846-014-0114-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kitchenham, B. (2004). Procedures for performing systematic reviews, p. 33.Google Scholar
  35. Lee, J., Choi, K., Kim, Y., Han, H., & Kang, S. (2016). Exploiting remote GPGPU in mobile devices. Cluster Computing, 19(3), 1571–1583.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-016-0614-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, W., Hwang, S. J., Shin, Y., Yoo, J., & Ryu, S. (2017). Fast stereoscopic rendering on mobile ray tracing GPU for virtual reality applications. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 355–357.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCE.2017.7889353.
  37. Li, T., Liu, Q., & Zhou, X. (2017). Ultra-low power gaze tracking for virtual reality. In Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor systems, pp. 25:1–25:14.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3131672.3131682.
  38. Liu, J., & Zhang, Q. (2019). Code-partitioning offloading schemes in mobile edge computing for augmented reality. IEEE Access, 7, 11222–11236.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2891113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meng, Y., Meng, Q., Yue, W., Zou, Y., & Wang, X. (2018). Radio resource allocation scheme for drone-assisted AR applications. In 2018 15th International Symposium on Pervasive Systems, Algorithms and Networks (I-SPAN), pp. 215–220.  https://doi.org/10.1109/I-SPAN.2018.00042.
  40. Milgram, P., & Kishino, F. (1994, December). A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. Retrieved July 16, 2019, from https://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e77-d_12_1321.
  41. Murugesan, S. (2008). Harnessing green IT: Principles and practices. IT Professional, 10(1), 24–33.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2008.10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mylonas, G., Triantafyllis, C., & Amaxilatis, D. (2019). An augmented reality prototype for supporting IoT-based educational activities for energy-efficient school buildings. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 343, 89–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2019.04.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nacu, C. R., Fodorean, D., Husar, C., Grovu, M., & Irimia, C. (2018). Towards autonomous EV by using virtual reality and Prescan-Simulink simulation environments. In 2018 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), pp. 401–406.  https://doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDAM.2018.8445211.
  44. Natephra, W., Motamedi, A., Fukuda, T., & Yabuki, N. (2017). Integrating building information modeling and virtual reality development engines for building indoor lighting design. Visualization in Engineering, 5(1), 19.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40327-017-0058-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Noreikis, M., Xiao, Y., & Ylä-Jääski, A. (2017). SeeNav: Seamless and energy-efficient indoor navigation using augmented reality. In Proceedings of the on Thematic Workshops of ACM Multimedia 2017, pp. 186–193.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3126686.3126733.
  46. Nugraha Bahar, Y., Landrieu, J., Pére, C., & Nicolle, C. (2014). CAD data workflow toward the thermal simulation and visualization in virtual reality. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM), 8(4), 283–292.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12008-013-0200-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Patti, E., Mollame, A., Erba, D., Dalmasso, D., Osello, A., Macii, E., & Acquaviva, A. (2017). Information modeling for virtual and augmented reality. IT Professional, 19(3), 52–60.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2017.43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pelliccia, L., Klimant, P., Schumann, M., Pürzel, F., Wittstock, V., & Putz, M. (2016). Energy visualization techniques for machine tools in virtual reality. Procedia CIRP, 41, 329–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.10.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Purmaissur, J. A., Towakel, P., Guness, S. P., Seeam, A., & Bellekens, X. A. (2018). Augmented-reality computer-vision assisted disaggregated energy monitoring and IoT control platform. In 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC), pp. 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICONIC.2018.8601199.
  50. Qvarfordt, C., Lundqvist, H., & Koudouridis, G. P. (2018). High quality mobile XR: Requirements and feasibility. In 2018 IEEE 23rd International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), pp. 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1109/CAMAD.2018.8514957.
  51. Saeedi, S., Bodin, B., Wagstaff, H., Nisbet, A., Nardi, L., Mawer, J. … Furber, S. (2018). Navigating the landscape for real-time localization and mapping for robotics and virtual and augmented reality. Proceedings of the IEEE, 106(11), 2020–2039.  https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2018.2856739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sánchez-Gordón, M., & Colomo-Palacios, R. (2019). Taking the emotional pulse of software engineering—A systematic literature review of empirical studies. Information and Software Technology, 115, 23–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2019.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shao, C., Islam, B., & Nirjon, S. (2018). MARBLE: Mobile augmented reality using a distributed BLE beacon infrastructure. In 2018 IEEE/ACM Third International Conference on Internet-Of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI), pp. 60–71.  https://doi.org/10.1109/IoTDI.2018.00016.
  54. Shea, R., Fu, D., Sun, A., Cai, C., Ma, X., Fan, X. … Liu, J. (2017). Location-based augmented reality with pervasive smartphone sensors: inside and beyond Pokemon Go! IEEE Access, 5, 9619–9631.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2696953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shea, R., Sun, A., Fu, S., & Liu, J. (2017). Towards fully offloaded cloud-based AR: Design, implementation and experience. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM on Multimedia Systems Conference, pp. 321–330.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3083187.3084012.
  56. Shi, B., Yang, J., Huang, Z., & Hui, P. (2015). Offloading guidelines for augmented reality applications on wearable devices. In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 1271–1274.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2733373.2806402.
  57. Shu, J., Kosta, S., Zheng, R., & Hui, P. (2018). Talk2Me: A framework for device-to-device augmented reality social network. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), pp. 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1109/PERCOM.2018.8444578.
  58. Song, S., Kim, J., & Chung, J. (2019). Energy consumption minimization control for augmented reality applications based on multi-core smart devices. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), pp. 1–4.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCE.2019.8661917.
  59. Tiwari, A., Verma, S., Chand, T., Shravan Kumar, R. R., & Karar, V. (2019). A comparative study on display sources for augmented reality-based technology in defense applications. Journal of Optics.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12596-019-00530-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wee, T. K., Cuervo, E., & Balan, R. (2018). FocusVR: Effective 8 usable VR display power management. Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies, 2(3), 142:1–142:25.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3264952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yan, Z., Song, C., Lin, F., & Xu, W. (2018). Exploring eye adaptation in head-mounted display for energy efficient smartphone virtual reality. In Proceedings of the 19th International Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems & Applications, pp. 13–18.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3177102.3177121.
  62. Yen, C., Chen, W., Hsiu, P., & Kuo, T. (2018). Differentiated handling of physical scenes and virtual objects for mobile augmented reality. In 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), pp. 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3240765.3240798.
  63. Zemblys, R., & Komogortsev, O. (2018). Developing photo-sensor oculography (PS-OG) system for virtual reality headsets. In Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications, pp. 83:1–83:3.  https://doi.org/10.1145/3204493.3208341.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Khakpour
    • 1
  • Mary Sánchez-Gordón
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ricardo Colomo-Palacios
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer SciencesØstfold University CollegeHaldenNorway

Personalised recommendations