Lock-Free Transactional Adjacency List

  • Zachary PainterEmail author
  • Christina Peterson
  • Damian Dechev
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11403)


Adjacency lists are frequently used in graphing or map based applications. Although efficient concurrent linked-list algorithms are well known, it can be difficult to adapt these approaches to build a high-performance adjacency list. Furthermore, it can often be desirable to execute operations in these data structures transactionally, or perform a sequence of operations in one atomic step. In this paper, we present a lock-free transactional adjacency list based on a multi-dimensional list (MDList). We are able to combine known linked list strategies with the capability of the MDList in order to efficiently organize graph vertexes and their edges. We design our underlying data structure to be node-based and linearizable, then use the Lock-Free Transactional Transformation (LFTT) methodology to efficiently enable transactional execution. In our performance evaluation, our lock-free transactional adjacency list achieves an average of 50% speedup over a transactional boosting implementation.


  1. 1.
    Cain, H.W., Michael, M.M., Frey, B., May, C., Williams, D., Le, H.: Robust architectural support for transactional memory in the power architecture. In: ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, vol. 41, pp. 225–236. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dalessandro, L., Spear, M.F., Scott, M.L.: NOrec: streamlining STM by abolishing ownership records. In: ACM Sigplan Notices, vol. 45, pp. 67–78. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dice, D., Lev, Y., Moir, M., Nussbaum, D., Olszewski, M.: Early experience with a commercial hardware transactional memory implementation. Sun Microsystems Technical report (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dice, D., Shalev, O., Shavit, N.: Transactional locking II. In: Dolev, S. (ed.) DISC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4167, pp. 194–208. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fomitchev, M., Ruppert, E.: Lock-free linked lists and skip lists. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 50–59. ACM (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fraser, K.: Practical lock-freedom. Technical report, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harris, T.L.: A pragmatic implementation of non-blocking linked-lists. In: Welch, J. (ed.) DISC 2001. LNCS, vol. 2180, pp. 300–314. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herlihy, M., Lev, Y., Shavit, N.: A lock-free concurrent skiplist with wait-free search. Unpublished Manuscript, Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Burlington, Massachusetts (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herlihy, M., Koskinen, E.: Transactional boosting: a methodology for highly-concurrent transactional objects. In: Proceedings of the 13th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, pp. 207–216. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Herlihy, M., Luchangco, V., Moir, M., Scherer III, W.N.: Software transactional memory for dynamic-sized data structures. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 92–101. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herlihy, M., Moss, J.E.B.: Transactional memory: architectural support for lock-free data structures, vol. 21. ACM (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Intel. Intel 64 and IA-32 architectures optimization reference manual (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marathe, V.J., et al.: Lowering the overhead of nonblocking software transactional memory. In: Workshop on Languages, Compilers, and Hardware Support for Transactional Computing (TRANSACT) (2006) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michael, M.M.: High performance dynamic lock-free hash tables and list-based sets. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, pp. 73–82. ACM (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michael, M.M.: Safe memory reclamation for dynamic lock-free objects using atomic reads and writes. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 21–30. ACM (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saha, B., Adl-Tabatabai, A.-R., Hudson, R.L., Minh, C.C., Hertzberg, B.: McRT-STM: a high performance software transactional memory system for a multi-core runtime. In: Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, pp. 187–197. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shavit, N., Lotan, I.: Skiplist-based concurrent priority queues. In: 2000 Proceedings of the 14th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2000, pp. 263–268. IEEE (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shavit, N., Touitou, D.: Software transactional memory. Distrib. Comput. 10(2), 99–116 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spiegelman, A., Golan-Gueta, G., Keidar, I.: Transactional data structure libraries. In: Proceedings of the 37th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI 2016), vol. 51, pp. 682–696. ACM (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sundell, H., Tsigas, P.: Fast and lock-free concurrent priority queues for multi-thread systems. In: 2003 Proceedings of the International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, pp. 11–pp. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Treiber, R.K.: Systems programming: coping with parallelism. International Business Machines Incorporated, Thomas J. Watson Research Center (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valois, J.D.: Lock-free linked lists using compare-and-swap. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 214–222. ACM (1995)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoo, R.M., Hughes, C.J., Lai, K., Rajwar, R.: Performance evaluation of intel® transactional synchronization extensions for high-performance computing. In: 2013 International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis (SC), pp. 1–11. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang, D., Dechev, D.: An efficient lock-free logarithmic search data structure based on multi-dimensional list. In: 2016 IEEE 36th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 281–292. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang D., Dechev, D.: Lock-free transactions without rollbacks for linked data structures. In: Proceedings of the 28th ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures, pp. 325–336. ACM (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary Painter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christina Peterson
    • 1
  • Damian Dechev
    • 1
  1. 1.University Of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations