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Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanomaterials and Skin Infections

  • Joana C. Pieretti
  • Amedea B. SeabraEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous molecule that controls several biological processes, ranging from the promotion of vasodilatation to the acceleration of wound repair process and potent antimicrobial effects. NO is synthesized in human skin through the action of three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), with an important role in dermal vasodilatation, wound healing process, tissue repair, and skin defense against pathogens. During the past few years, interest has increased in the development of biologically friendly and versatile NO-releasing materials for biomedical applications, in particular, for topical/dermatological applications. Recently, the combination of NO donors/generations with nanomaterials has been emerging as a suitable strategy to carry and deliver therapeutic amounts of NO directly to the target site of application, including human skin, as discussed in this chapter. Thus, NO-releasing nanomaterials present great potential to treat skin diseases, highlighting skin infections caused by pathogens, because of the broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity of NO. In this sense, NO donors/generators have been incorporated in nanoparticles, leading to a sustained and localized delivery of NO. This chapter presents and discusses the recent advantages on the design and applications of NO-releasing nanomaterials for dermatological applications, mainly in promoting wound healing and in combating resistant pathogens.

Keywords

Antimicrobial Nanomaterials Nanoparticles Nitric oxide Nitric oxide donors Skin infections 

Nomenclature

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

AuNPs

Gold nanoparticles

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

GSNO

S-Nitroso glutathione

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MSSA

Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

NO

Nitric oxide

NO2

Nitrite

NO3

Nitrate

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

O2

Oxygen

RONO2

NO-releasing organic nitrates

RSNO

S-Nitroso molecules

UV

Ultraviolet radiation

UVA

Ultraviolet A radiation

Notes

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the support from CNPq (404815/2018-9) and FAPESP (2018/08194-2, 2018/02832-7).

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Natural and Human Sciences (CCNH)Federal University of ABC (UFABC)Santo AndréBrazil

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