Advertisement

Eastern Canadian Landscapes as a Function of Structure, Relief and Process

  • Olav SlaymakerEmail author
  • Norm Catto
  • Dori J. Kovanen
Chapter
  • 46 Downloads
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

Eastern Canada’s landscapes are investigated as a function of structure, relief and process. Eastern Canada can be divided into four roughly concentric megaregions whose boundaries are controlled exclusively by geological structure. These megaregions are (a) the Canadian Shield, which is the craton or core of North America; (b) the surrounding plains arranged in a broken ring around the Shield together with an inlier of similar lithology stratigraphically above the Shield; (c) a broken ring of two mountainous regions that surrounds the plains: Innuitia in the far north and Appalachia in the southeast; (d) two widely separated low-relief continental shelves and coastal plains of Quaternary sediments marginal to the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. These four megaregions are further subdivided into 29 subregions that are sensitive to variations in structure, relief and process. The most spectacular landscapes are arranged around the periphery of Eastern Canada: the magnificent glaciers and snow-capped mountains of the Arctic, the fascinating Atlantic coastline and the unique Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River basin.

Keywords

Landscape Geological province Physiographic region Geomorphological region Structure Relief Process 

References

  1. Adams J, Basham PW (1991) The seismicity and seismotectonics of eastern Canada. In: Slemmons DB, Engdahl ER, Zoback MD, Blackwell DD (eds) Neotectonics of North America. Geol Soc Am, vol Decade Map 1, pp 261–276Google Scholar
  2. Ambrose JW (1964) Exhumed paleoplains of the Precambrian Shield of North America. Am J Sci 262:817–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bird JB (1967) Physiography of Arctic Canada. Johns Hopkins Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird JB (1972) The natural landscapes of Canada: a study in regional earth science. Wiley Publishers of Canada, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  5. Bliss LC, Heal OW, Moore JJ (eds) (1981) Tundra ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Bostock HS (1970) Physiographic subdivisions of Canada. In: Douglas RJW (ed) Geology and economic minerals of Canada. Economic geology report no. 1, Geol Surv Can, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, pp 10–30Google Scholar
  7. Bostock HS (2014) Physiographic regions of Canada. Geol Surv Can Map 1254A (1st and 2nd editions), scale 1:5 000 000Google Scholar
  8. Brookes IA (1993) Table Mountain, Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland: Canadian landform examples 26. Can Geogr 37:60–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourque PA, Malo M, Kirkwood D (2000) Palaeogeography and tectono-sedimentary history at the margin of Laurentia during Silurian to earlies Devonian time: the Gaspé belt, Québec. Bull Geol Soc Am 112:4–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canadian Geographic (2018) Indigenous peoples’ Atlas of Canada. Royal Canadian Geographical Society, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapman LI, Putnam DF (1984) The physiography of Southern Ontario, 3rd edn. Ont Geol Surv Spec, vol 2Google Scholar
  12. Colman-Sadd SP, Hayes JP, Knight I (1990) Geology of the Island of Newfoundland. Newfoundland and Labrador, Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Branch, Map 90-01. Open File GS# NFLD/2192Google Scholar
  13. Cowell DW, Ford DC (1980) Hydrochemistry of a dolomite karst: the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario. Can J Earth Sci 17:520–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dawes PR, Christie RL (1991) Geomorphic regions. In: Trettin HP (ed) Geology of the Innuitian Orogen and Arctic Platform of Canada and Greenland. Geology of Canada, no 3. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, pp 29–56Google Scholar
  15. Douglas RJW (1970) Geology and economic minerals of Canada. Economic geology report no. 1, Geological Survey of Canada, Department of energy, mines and resources, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  16. Earth Impact Database (2017) University of New Brunswick, planetary and space science centre. http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/faq.html. Accessed 10 May 2017
  17. Environment Canada (1995) Ecozones of Canada (version 1) http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/nsdb/ecostrat/gis_data.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2015
  18. Ford DC (2006) Karst geomorphology, caves and cave deposits: a review of North American contributions during the past half century. Geol Soc Am SP 404Google Scholar
  19. Ford DC, Williams PW (2007) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Wiley & Sons, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fulton RJ (1989) Quaternary geology of the Canadian Shield. In: Fulton RJ (ed) Quaternary geology of Canada and Greenland. Geology of Canada Series, no. 1. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, pp 177–178Google Scholar
  21. Gao C, Shirota J, Kelly RI, van Haaften S (2006) Bedrock toporagraph and overburden thickness mapping, southern Ontario. Ontario Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Release—Data 207. https://www.mndm.gov.on.ca/en/mines-and-minerals/applications/ogsearth
  22. Gilbert GK (1907) The rate of recession of Niagara Falls. US Geol Surv Bull 306Google Scholar
  23. Government of Canada; Natural Resources Canada (2007) Canada centre for mapping and earth observation, CanImage—Landsat 7 Orthoimages of Canada, 1:50 000 Tiles: 058f13, 058f14, 058f15, 058g02, 058g03, 058g04, 058g05, 058g06, 058g07, 066c10, 054f11. ftp.geogratis.gc.ca/pub/nrcan_rncan/image/
  24. Government of Canada (2008) Canadian permafrost thickness, Geological Survey of Canada. Natural Resources Canada; Earth Sciences Sector; Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation. http://geogratis.gc.ca/api/en/nrcan-rncan/ess-sst/092b663d-198b-5c8d-9665-fa3f5970a14f.html. Accessed 30 Jan 2015
  25. Government of Québec, Ministry of Forests, Wildlife and Parks (MFFP) (2017) Bank of photos of Northern Québec. www.donneesquebec.ca/recherche/fr/dataset/photographie-oblique-du-nord-quebecois
  26. Graf WL (1987) Regional geomorphology of North America. In: Graf WL (ed) Geomorphic systems of North America, Centennial Special, vol 2. Geol Soc Am. Boulder, Colorado, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  27. Grant DR (1989) Quaternary geology of the Atlantic Appalachian region of Canada. In: Fulton RJ (ed) Quaternary geology of Canada and Greenland. Geology of Canada Series, no. 1. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, pp 393–440Google Scholar
  28. Grieve RAF (2001) Impact cratering on Earth. In: Brooks GR (ed) A synthesis of geological hazards in Canada. Geol Surv Can Bull, vol 548, pp 207–22Google Scholar
  29. Guyard H, St. Onge G, Pienitz R, Francus P (2011) New insights into Late Pleistocene glacial and postglacial history of northernmost Ungava (Canada) from Pinualuit Crater Lake sediments. Quat Sci Rev 30:3892–3907Google Scholar
  30. Halsey L, Vitt D, Zoltai S (1997) Climatic and physiographic controls on wetland type and distribution in Manitoba, Canada. Wetlands 17:243–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hare FK, Ritchie J (1972) The boreal bioclimates. Geog Rev 62:333–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodgson DA (1989) Quaternary geology of the Queen Elizabeth Islands. In: Fulton RJ (ed) Quaternary geology of Canada and Greenland. Geology of Canada Series, no. 1. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, pp 441–478Google Scholar
  33. von Humboldt A (1845) Kosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe (vol 1) (translated from the German by Otté EC) Harper and Brothers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Inuit Heritage Trust (2015) Where we live and travel: named places and selected routes. Vancouver Foundation, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  35. Ives JD (2016) Baffin Island: field research and high arctic adventure, 1961–1967. University of Calgary PressGoogle Scholar
  36. La Berge GL (1994) Geology of the Lake Superior Region. Geoscience Press, Phoenix, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  37. Larsen JA (1980) The Boreal ecosystem. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Lemmen DS, Evans DJA, England J (1988) Ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island. N.W.T. Canadian landform examples, 10. The Can Geogr 32:363–367Google Scholar
  39. MDA Federal (2004) Landsat GeoCover ETM+2000 Edition Mosaics Tiles N-14-65, N-14-70, N-16-65, N-16-70, N-16-75, N-18-65, N-18-70, N-18-75, N-19-45, N-19-50, N-20-40, N-20-45, N-20-50, N-20-60, N-21-45, N-21-50, N-22-45 ETM-EarthSat-MrSID, 1.0, USGS, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 2000. Accessed 2016, at the Global Land Cover FacilityGoogle Scholar
  40. Natural Resources Canada (2012) Atlas of Canada, Northern geodatabase. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/702ebdea-39ff-50e4-ab5f-de1150d16b7a
  41. Ritchie JC (1987) Postglacial vegetation of Canada. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. Roberge JS, Ford DC (1983) Karst of the Salmon River, Anticosti Island, Québec. J Hydro 61:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Smith SL, Burgess MM, Heginbottom JA (2001) Permafrost in Canada: a challenge to northern development. In: Brooks GR (ed) A synthesis of geological hazards in Canada. Geol Surv Can Bull, vol 548, pp 241–264Google Scholar
  44. Stearn CW (1975) Canada. In: Fairbridge RW (ed) Encyclopedia of world regional geology. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa, pp 139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stöckli R, Vermote E, Saleous N, Simmon R, Herring D (2005) The blue marble next generation—a true color earth dataset including seasonal dynamics from MODIS. NASA, Earth ObservatoryGoogle Scholar
  46. Tinkler KJ (1986) Niagara falls: Canadian landform examples 2. Can Geogr 30:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tinkler KJ (1997) Rockbed wear at a flow convergence zone in Fifteen Mile Creek, Niagara Peninsula, Ontario. J Geol 105:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tyman J (2008) Inuit: people of the Arctic, Bill Hillman’s edutech research project, at Brandon University, Canada. Copyright the Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford. www.johntyman.com/arctic/
  49. Wheeler JO, Hoffman PF, Card KD, Davidson A, Sanford BV, Okulitch AV, Roest WR (compilers) (1996) Geological map of Canada. Geol Surv Can, Map D1860AGoogle Scholar
  50. Williams PW, Fong YT (2017) World map of carbonate rock outcrops (version 3.0). http://web.env.auckland.ac.nz/research/karst.shtml. Accessed 9 May 2017
  51. Zoltai SC (ed) (1988) Wetlands of Canada. National Wetlands Working Group, Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification, Environment Canada, Ecological Land Classification Series 24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMemorial University of Newfoundland and LabradorSt. John’sCanada

Personalised recommendations