Eastern Canadian Landscapes as a Function of Structure, Relief and Process

  • Olav SlaymakerEmail author
  • Norm Catto
  • Dori J. Kovanen
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


Eastern Canada’s landscapes are investigated as a function of structure, relief and process. Eastern Canada can be divided into four roughly concentric megaregions whose boundaries are controlled exclusively by geological structure. These megaregions are (a) the Canadian Shield, which is the craton or core of North America; (b) the surrounding plains arranged in a broken ring around the Shield together with an inlier of similar lithology stratigraphically above the Shield; (c) a broken ring of two mountainous regions that surrounds the plains: Innuitia in the far north and Appalachia in the southeast; (d) two widely separated low-relief continental shelves and coastal plains of Quaternary sediments marginal to the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. These four megaregions are further subdivided into 29 subregions that are sensitive to variations in structure, relief and process. The most spectacular landscapes are arranged around the periphery of Eastern Canada: the magnificent glaciers and snow-capped mountains of the Arctic, the fascinating Atlantic coastline and the unique Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River basin.


Landscape Geological province Physiographic region Geomorphological region Structure Relief Process 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMemorial University of Newfoundland and LabradorSt. John’sCanada

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