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Epilepsy: Mesial Temporal

  • Patrick J. Karas
  • Sameer A. Sheth
  • Daniel YoshorEmail author
Chapter
  • 113 Downloads

Abstract

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common focal epilepsy syndromes. Roughly one third of patients with MTLE continue to have disabling seizures despite multiple trials of antiepileptic medications. Surgical resection of the mesial temporal lobe in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal epilepsy can lead to freedom from disabling seizures in 60–90% of patients. However proper patient selection is essential in order to achieve high rates of seizure freedom. In this chapter, we first discuss the pathophysiology and semiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. After reviewing the diagnosis, we detail the preoperative workup necessary to determining if a patient is appropriate for surgery. Surgical intervention for mesial temporal epilepsy has evolved significantly over the past two decades. We discuss in detail the classical surgical approaches including anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy in addition to outcomes and complications of surgery. We then discuss newer surgical approaches to MTLE, including stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and neuromodulation, emphasizing how these new techniques supplement traditional approaches in order to provide surgical options to a greater population of patients with MTLE.

Keywords

Seizure Mesial temporal epilepsy Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Mesial temporal sclerosis Anterior temporal lobectomy Selective amygdalohippocampectomy Stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy Hippocampal transections Responsive neurostimulation Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus Gamma Knife Epilepsy surgery Surgical techniques 

Abbreviations

AChA

Anterior choroidal artery

AED

Antiepileptic drug

ANT

Anterior nucleus of the thalamus

ATL

Anterior temporal lobectomy

C

Caudate

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DBS

Deep brain stimulation

EEG

Electroencephalogram

EMU

Epilepsy monitoring unit

FDG

Fludeoxyglucose

HMPAO

Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime

IC

Internal capsule

ITG

Inferior temporal gyrus

LITT

Laser interstitial thermal therapy

MEG

Magnetoencephalography

MTLE

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

MTG

Middle temporal gyrus

OT

Optic tract

P

Putamen

PCA

Posterior cerebral artery

PET

Positron emission tomography

PHG

Parahippocampal gyrus

RNS

Responsive neurostimulation

SAHC

Selective amygdalohippocampectomy

sEEG

Stereoelectroencephalography

SLAH

Stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy

SOZ

Seizure onset zone

SPECT

Single-photon emission computerized tomography

SRS

Stereotactic radiosurgery

STG

Superior temporal gyrus

SUB

Subiculum

Tc-99m

Technetium-99m

THLV

Temporal horn of the lateral ventricle

VNS

Vagus nerve stimulation

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Dr. Winifred Hamilton for her artistic skill in drafting the original versions of Figs. 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, and 24.7 and Dr. Audrey Nath for providing images in Fig. 24.3.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick J. Karas
    • 1
  • Sameer A. Sheth
    • 1
  • Daniel Yoshor
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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