Traditional and Mini-Frames

  • Ahmad Alhourani
  • Abigail McCallum
  • Joseph S. NeimatEmail author


Stereotactic frames have been in neurosurgical practice for more than half a century. Since the earliest models, these instruments have seen several iterative improvements, from the first rectilinear frame to arc-centric frames and finally to “frameless” or mini-frame techniques. Each iteration has aimed at improving accuracy while providing increased patient comfort and versatility. Today, the fluidity of modern imaging, robotics, and rapid manufacture techniques have enabled a new host of stereotactic systems. In this chapter, we describe the theoretical basis behind each system and its workflow for DBS lead placement. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of these systems.


Frameless Deep brain stimulation NexFrame Robotic STarFix Stereotaxis Leksell CRW 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Alhourani
    • 1
  • Abigail McCallum
    • 1
  • Joseph S. Neimat
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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