Advertisement

Mastery Learning of Team Skills

  • Aashish K. DidwaniaEmail author
  • Erin D. Unger
  • Debi L. Mitra
  • William C. McGaghie
Chapter
  • 29 Downloads
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)

Abstract

Teamwork and leadership skill training are critically important aspects of medical education. This chapter describes the evolution of education curricula for health professions team-based skill development leading to the potential application of simulation-based (SB) mastery learning. The chapter starts with our interview of Apollo 13 commander Captain James Lovell who sets the stage for mastery learning of team skills by sharing the rigorous training his team received for space flight nearly 50 years ago. The chapter then defines effective healthcare teams, briefly speaks to the science of team science, lists healthcare teams in a variety of professions, and identifies evidence-based team training principles. The next chapter section covers team training for effective healthcare moving from principles to strategies, team training in operation, and the lifespan of team training. The chapter finishes with concluding remarks.

Keywords

Evidence-based principles Healthcare teams Leadership Shared mental model Team skill training 

References

  1. 1.
    Lovell JA. Houston, we’ve had a problem. In: Cartright EM, editor. Apollo expeditions to the moon, SP-350. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Office; 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Helmreich RL, Foushee HC. Why crew resource management? Empirical and theoretical bases of human factors training in aviation. In: Weiner EL, Kanki BG, Helmreich RL, editors. Cockpit resource management. San Diego: Academic Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cooper GE, White MD, Lauber JK, editors. Resource management on the flightdeck: proceedings of a NASA/industry workshop (NASA CP-2120). Moffett Field: NASA-Ames Research Center; 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Editorial Staff. Top 10 safety issues. AeroSafety World. Dec. 2014–Jan. 2015. Front page.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson D. Failure to communicate. AeroSafety World. Nov. 2016. Front page.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Helmreich RL, Merritt AC, Wilhelm JA. The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Int J Aviat Psychol. 1999;9(1):19–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sullenberger C. Highest duty: my search for what really matters. New York: Harper; 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Denson JS, Abrahamson S. A computer-controlled patient simulator. JAMA. 1969;208(3):504–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abrahamson S, Denson JS, Wolf RM. Effectiveness of a simulator in training anesthesiology residents. J Med Educ. 1969;44:515–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wayne DB, Butter J, Siddall VJ, et al. Simulation-based training of internal medicine residents in advanced cardiac life support protocols: a randomized trial. Teach Learn Med. 2005;17(3):210–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wayne DB, Didwania A, Feinglass J, et al. Simulation-based education improves quality of care during cardiac arrest team responses at an academic teaching hospital: a case-control study. Chest. 2008;133:56–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wayne DB, Butter J, Siddall VJ, et al. Mastery learning of advanced cardiac life support skills by internal medicine residents using simulation technology and deliberate practice. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:251–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Didwania A, McGaghie WC, Cohen ER, et al. Progress toward improving the quality of cardiac arrest medical team responses at an academic teaching hospital. J Grad Med Educ. 2011;3:211–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ziesmann MT, Widder S, Park J, et al. S.T.A.R.T.T.: development of a national, multidisciplinary trauma crisis resource management curriculum—results from the pilot course. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;75(5):753–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gillman L, Brindly P, Paton-Gay J, et al. Simulated trauma and resuscitation team training course—evolution of a multidisciplinary trauma crisis resource management simulation course. Am J Surg. 2016;212(1):188–93.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tahtali D, Bohmann F, Kurka N, et al. Implementation of stroke teams and simulation training shortened process times in a regional stroke network—a network-wide prospective trial. PLoS One. 2017;12(12):e0188231.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188231.eCollection2017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deering S, Rowland J. Obstetric emergency simulation. Semin Perinatol. 2013;37:179–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith S. Team training and institutional protocols to prevent shoulder dystocia complications. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016;59:830–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shaddean A, Deering S. Simulation and shoulder dystocia. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016;59:853–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deering S, Poggi S, Macedonia C, et al. Improving resident competency in the management of shoulder dystocia with simulation training. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:634–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crofts J, Bartlett C, Ellis D, et al. Training for shoulder dystocia: a trial of simulation using low-fidelity and high-fidelity mannequins. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:1477–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shoham DA, Harris JK, Mundt M, McGaghie WC. A network model of communication in an interprofessional team of healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional study of a burn unit. J Interprof Care. 2016;39(5):661–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fiscella K, McDaniel SH. The complexity, diversity, and science of primary care teams. Am Psychol. 2018;73(4):451–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ervin JN, Kahn JM, Cohen TR, Weingart LR. Teamwork in the intensive care unit. Am Psychol. 2018;73(4):468–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salas E, Dickinson TL, Converse SA, Tannenbaum SI. Toward an understanding of team performance and training. In: Swezey RW, Salas E, editors. Teams: their training and performance. Norwood: Ablex; 1992.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Salas E, DiazGranados D, Weaver SJ, King H. Does team training work? Principles for health care. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15(11):1002–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McGaghie WC. Medical education research as translational science. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2(19):19cm8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Philibert I, Friedmann P. Williams WT for the members of the ACGME work group on resident duty hours. New requirements for resident duty hours. JAMA. 2002;288(9):1112–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nasca TJ, Philibert I, Brigham T, Flynn TC. The next GME accreditation system—rationale and benefits. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(11):1051–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Börner K, Contractor N, Falk-Krzesinski HJ, et al. A multi-level systems perspective for the science of team science. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2(49):49cm24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Falk-Krzesinski HJ, Börner K, Contractor N, et al. Advancing the science of team science. Clin Transl Sci. 2010;3(5):263–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall KL, Vogel AL, Huand GC, et al. The science of team science: a review of the empirical evidence and research gaps on collaboration in science. Am Psychol. 2018;73(4):532–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Driskell JE, Salas E, Driskell T. Foundations of teamwork and collaboration. Am Psychol. 2018;73(4):334–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baker DP, Salas E. Principles for measuring teamwork. In: Brannick MT, Salas E, Prince C, editors. Team performance assessment and measurement: theory, methods and applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1997.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loughry ML, Ohland MW, Moore DD. Development of a theory-based assessment of team member effectiveness. Educ Psychol Meas. 2007;67:505–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grand JA, Pearce M, Rench TA, et al. Going DEEP: guidelines for building simulation-based team assessments. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22(5):436–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salas E, Sims DE, Burke CS. Is there a “Big Five” in teamwork? Small Group Res. 2005;36(5):555–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Allen CJ, Straker RJ, Murray CR, et al. Recent advances in forward surgical team training at the U.S. Army Trauma Training Department. Mil Med. 2016;181(6):553–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hamman WR, Beaudin-Seiler BM, Beaubien JM, et al. Using in situ simulation to identify and resolve latent environmental threats to patient safety: case study involving labor and delivery ward. J Patient Saf. 2009;5:184–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Draycott TJ, Crofts JF, Ash JP, et al. Improving neonatal outcome through practical shoulder dystocia training. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:14–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rudolph JW, Simon R, Rivard P, et al. Debriefing with good judgment: combining rigorous feedback with genuine inquiry. Anesthesiol Clin. 2007;25:361–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Draycott T, Sibanda T, Owen L, et al. Does training in obstetric emergencies improve neonatal outcome? BJOG. 2006;113:177–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller KK, Riley W, Davis S, Hansen HE. In situ simulation: a method of experiential learning to promote safety and team behavior. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2008;22(2):105–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weaver SJ, Dy SM, Rosen MA. Team training in healthcare: a narrative synthesis of the literature. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014;23:359–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    King HB, Battles J, Baker DP, et al. TeamSTEPPS: team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, Grady ML, editors. Advances in patient safety: new directions and alternative approaches, vol. 3: performance and tools. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thomas L, Donohue-Porter P. Blending evidence and innovation: improving intershift handoffs in a multihospital setting. J Nurs Care Qual. 2012;27(2):116–24.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mayer CM, Cluff L, Lin W-T, et al. Evaluating efforts to optimize TeamSTEPPS implementation in surgical and pediatric intensive care units. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2011;37(8):365–74.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rosenbaum L. Divided we fall. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(7):684–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Salas E, Reyes DL, Woods AL. Team training in organizations: it works—when done right. In: Argote L, Levine JM, editors. The Oxford handbook of group and organizational learning. New York: Oxford University Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    McGaghie WC. Evaluation apprehension and impression management in clinical medical education. Acad Med. 2018;93(5):685–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rosenbaum L. Cursed by knowledge—building a culture of psychological safety. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(8):786–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hughes AM, Gregory MC, Joseph DL, et al. Saving lives: a meta-analysis of team training in healthcare. J Appl Psychol. 2016;101(9):1266–304.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aashish K. Didwania
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erin D. Unger
    • 2
  • Debi L. Mitra
    • 2
  • William C. McGaghie
    • 3
  1. 1.Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Departments of Medicine and Medical EducationChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Departments of Medical Education and Preventive MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations