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Macroscopic Heterogeneity

  • Vahid TavakoliEmail author
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)

Abstract

Microscopic and mesoscopic heterogeneities should be combined to form larger-scale units which can be correlated across the field or basin. This is performed by using seismic data, sedimentary strata, sequence stratigraphic concepts, constructing various maps and reservoir tomography. Seismic waves pass through the reservoir rocks and illustrate the large-scale structures. These data are very useful for detailed subsurface correlations at field scale. Layers with acoustic impedance contrast represent different zones. They should be carefully interpreted. These seismic lines may indicate formation tops, chronological boundaries, different lithologies or any change in reservoir properties. Stratification is caused by changes in facies properties through time. They represent different depositional conditions and probably reservoir characteristics. The widespread lateral continuity of the strata makes them useful for large-scale correlations. Genetically related strata are classified as sequence stratigraphic units. These units are deposited in the same physical, chemical and biological conditions, and so, they usually have similar reservoir properties. With respect to their primary textures, they also have the same diagenetic imprints. The boundaries between these units are marked based on the core analysis data, seismic traces and wire-line logs. They are correlated between the wells as reservoir zones. Then, microscopic and mesoscopic scale units are distributed in sequence stratigraphic framework. Low permeability or impermeable layers or strata are considered as static or dynamic compartmentalizers in the reservoir body. They strongly affect the fluid properties of reservoir compartments and so should be carefully considered before production. Data from various wells are projected on horizontal planes as maps or on vertical sections as profiles. They help to improve the macroscopic understanding of the reservoir heterogeneities. The horizontal maps of different depths are used for reservoir tomography. The variations in properties through time are revealed with this method.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geology, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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