Advertisement

Transverse Upper Gracilis Flap in Breast Reconstruction

  • Gottfried WechselbergerEmail author
  • Karl Schwaiger
Chapter
  • 64 Downloads

Abstract

The transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap (TMG, TUG) is a major evolution in breast reconstruction. Systematic clinical application for breast reconstruction started in the early beginning of the new millennium after discovering the major advantages of this musculo-adipo-cutaneous free flap. Low donor-site morbidity, constant anatomy, and easy two-team approach are a few arguments for considering this valuable tissue source for breast reconstruction. This chapter is a systematic workup of the flap, including practical surgical tips and case presentations.

Keywords

TMG flap TUG flap Breast reconstruction Breast cancer Gracilis flap Free flap breast reconstruction Mastectomy Nipple-sparing mastectomy Skin-sparing mastectomy Tissue transfer Microsurgery 

Supplementary material

Video 26.1

The preoperative marking and the flap harvest (MP4 855139 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Yousif NJ, Matloub HS, Kolachalam R, Grunert BK, Sanger JR. The transverse gracilis musculocutaneous flap. Ann Plast Surg. 1992;29:482–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yousif NJ. The transverse gracilis musculocutaneous flap. Ann Plast Surg. 1993;31:382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peek A, Müller M, Exner K. The free gracilis perforator flap for autologous breast reconstruction. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2002;34(4):245–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arnez ZM, Pogorelec D, Planinsek F, Ahcan U. Breast reconstruction by the free transverse gracilis (TUG) flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57(1):20–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schoeller T, Wechselberger G. Breast reconstruction by the free transverse gracilis (TUG) flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57(5):481–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wechselberger G, Schoeller T. The transverse myocutaneous gracilis free flap: a valuable tissue source in autologous breast reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114(1):69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wong C, Mojallal A, Bailey SH, Trussler A, Saint-Cyr M. The extended transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap: vascular anatomy and clinical implications. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;67(2):170–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schoeller T, Huemer G, Wechselberger G. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: guidelines for flap and patient selection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122(1):29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wechselberger G, Traintinger H, Larcher L, Russe E, Edelbauer M, Ensat F. Clinical applications of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for secondary breast reconstruction following simple mastectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;173(1):19–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wechselberger G, Schoeller T, Bauer T, Schwabegger A, Ninkovic M, Rainer C, Ninkovic M. Surgical technique and clinical application of the transverse gracilis myocutaneous free flap. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54:423–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Russe E, Kholosy H, Weitgasser L, Brandstetter M, Traintinger H, Neureiter J, Wechselberger G, Schoeller T. Autologous fat grafting for enhancement of breast reconstruction with a transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap: a cohort study. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2018;71(11):1557–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic SurgeryBrothers of Charity Hospital (Barmherzige Brüder), Paracelsus Medical UniversitySalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations