Ecotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles and Possible Strategies for Risk Assessment

  • Ifra Zoomi
  • Harbans Kaur Kehri
  • Ovaid Akhtar
  • Dheeraj Pandey
  • Pragya Srivastava
  • Raghvendra Pratap Narayan
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Nanoparticles are defined as particulate matter, usually with nanoscale dimensions (1–100 nm). Nanoparticles are broadly categorized into two groups: (i) carbon-containing nanoparticles and (ii) metallic nanoparticles. Metals such as gold (Au), iron (Fe), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu), and metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), antimony oxide (Sb2O3), cerium dioxide (CeO2), copper oxide (CuO), nickel oxide (NiO), iron oxide (FeO), and zinc oxide (ZnO), are used for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. At the present time, metallic nanoparticles are being widely used at a commercial level, which has resulted in great possibilities for their interactions with green plants, human beings, microorganisms, animals, and their surrounding environment. Therefore, detailed understanding of their synthesis, interaction, and possible risk valuation would offer a foundation for harmless use of nanoparticles with insignificant effects on the environment. This chapter focuses on the hazardous aspects of nanoparticles that arise during synthesis and application. Possible strategies for risk assessment are also discussed in detail.


Toxicity Nanoparticles Metals Synthesis 



The authors thank the Head of the Botany Department, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, for providing the necessary facilities, and are also grateful to UGC and CSIR for providing financial support to Ifra Zoomi, Pragya Srivastava, Dheeraj Pandey, and Ovaid Akhtar.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ifra Zoomi
    • 1
  • Harbans Kaur Kehri
    • 1
  • Ovaid Akhtar
    • 2
  • Dheeraj Pandey
    • 1
  • Pragya Srivastava
    • 1
  • Raghvendra Pratap Narayan
    • 3
  1. 1.Sadasivan Myco-pathology Laboratory, Department of BotanyUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyKamla Nehru Institute of Physical and Social SciencesSultanpurIndia
  3. 3.Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Government Girls P.G. CollegeLucknowIndia

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