The Politics of Markets
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As English kings looked to draw revenues from Anglo-Gascon trade, they endeavoured to control its markets, and, as they did, their intervention significantly reshaped its institutional framework. This chapter explains how, over time, commercial exchange was increasingly concentrated in Bordeaux and Bayonne, with overseas trade dominated by a London guild, the Mistery of the Vintry. Both monopolies required damaging market restrictions be enforced by statute from 1353 to 1445. Any efforts to balance the interests of Anglo-Gascon and English merchants, however, ultimately failed, and antagonism between the various vested interests formed the backdrop to the loss of Aquitaine to the French crown in 1451–3.