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Antibacterial Polymeric and Peptide Gels/Hydrogels to Prevent Biomaterial-Related Infections

  • Kamal Malhotra
  • Yashveer SinghEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The emerging threat of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes is a menace to public health. The situation is equally alarming so far as biomaterial-related infections resulting from implantation are concerned. Antibiotics were considered effective in treating bacterial infections and saved millions of lives from infection but the repeated use of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance in microbes. Several strategies have been developed to address the challenge of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Examples include the use of antiseptics, antiadhesives, metal ions and nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, antimicrobial peptides, and antimicrobial polymers. Even though these approaches offer varying degree of success, they are also associated with serious limitations. Consequently, scientists have focused their efforts toward the development of self-assembled peptide and polymeric gels/hydrogels, as antibacterial biomaterials, to address the challenge of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This chapter provides a critical review of the developments in the field of antibacterial self-assembled peptides and polymeric gels/hydrogels for treating biomaterial-related infections.

Keywords

Antibacterial Antibiotic resistance Bacterial infection Biomaterial-related infection Polymeric hydrogel Self-assembled peptide gel 

Abbreviations

SiCl4

Silicon tetrachloride

A. baumannii

Acinetobacter baumannii

AG

Agarose

AgNPs

Silver nanoparticles

A-lys

Acryloyl-lysine

AMPs

Antimicrobial peptides

BMA

n-butyl methacrylate

BP

Bacterial polysaccharide

C. albicans

Candida albicans

cfu/dm2

Colony-forming units/decimeter square

cfu/mL

Colony-forming units per milliliter

CH

Chlorhexidine

CMC/ODex

Carboxymethyl chitosan/oxidized dextran

CNF

Carboxylated cellulose nanofiber

CTX

Ceftriaxone sodium

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

E. coli

Escherichia coli

E. faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis

EAK 16-II

AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK

EPL-MA

Epsilon-poly-l-lysine-graft-methacrylamide

EPS

Extracellular polymeric substances

F. solani

Fusarium solani

FDA

Food and Drug Administration USA

G

Gelatin

GO

Graphene oxide

h

Hour

hMSCs

Human mesenchymal stem cells

hRBCs

Human red blood cells

HRTEM

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy

K. pneumonia

Klebsiella pneumonia

KLD-12

Ac-KLDLKLDLKLDL-NH2

L. ivanovii

Listeria ivanovii

M. smegmatis

Mycobacterium smegmatis

M. tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

MAX-1

VKVKVKVKVDPPTKVKVKVKV-NH2

MDR

Multidrug resistance

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus

MWNTs

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes

NCG

Natural cashew gum

NH007

Boc-D-Phe-γ4-L-Phe-PEA

NH009

Boc-L-Phe-γ4-L-Phe-PEA

NVP

N-vinylpyrrolidone

P. aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

P. gingivalis

Porphyromonas gingivalis

P1

Boc-AUDA-Phe-COOH

P2

Boc-AUDA-Phg-COOH

pCBOH1

Poly(2-((2-hydroxyethyl) (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl) (methyl) ammonio) acetate

pCBOH2

Poly(2-(bis(2-hydroxyethyl) (2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) ammonio) acetate)

PDMAEMA

Poly(2-dimethylamino) ethylmethacrylate

PDR

Pandrug resistance

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PEGDA

Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate

PES

Poly(ether sulfone)

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PF 127

Pluronic F-127

PHMB

Polyhexamethylene biguanide

PLLA-PEG-PLLA

Poly(l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)

PNIPAAm

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

QAC

Quaternary ammonium compounds

QCS

Quaternized chitosan

RBCs

Red blood cells

rBMSC

Rat bone mesenchymal stem cell

rGO

Reduced graphene oxide

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

S. aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

S. epidermidis

Staphylococcus epidermidis

S. mutans

Streptococcus mutans

S. pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SPAAC

Strain-promoted alkyne–azide cycloaddition

SWCNTs

Single-wall carbon nanotubes

UV

Ultraviolet

WHO

World Health Organization

XRD

Extensively drug resistant

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge our students (PhD, MSc, and MTech) and colleagues who contributed to this work and the financial support to YS from the CSIR, New Delhi (grant # 02(0245)/15/EMR-II) and SERB, New Delhi (grant # EMR/2017/000045).

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology RoparRupnagarIndia

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