Effect of Whole-Body Movement on Performance and Efficiency: A Comparison of Three Controlling Methods for a Math Game
During the last decade, the number of studies investigating learning effectiveness and motivational aspects of game-based learning has increased. Nevertheless, research that considers the meaning of the User Interface (UI) in game-based learning has been sparse. This paper reports a within-subject study in which we investigated how the implementation of the UI affects students’ performance (accuracy), training efficiency (task completion duration), and user experience in a number line based math game. Ninety-three fifth graders played the same math game with three different UIs in a counter balanced order. The results revealed that the implementation of the UI influenced significantly on performance and training efficiency. Students’ estimation performance with the chair-based exertion UI (whole-body movement) was significantly worse than with the tilting UI (controlled with hands) and virtual directional pad UI (controlled with fingers). Nevertheless, the players felt that the controlling of the game was equally easy with the gaming chair than with the other two controlling methods. Actually, the majority of the students named the chair as the most preferable controlling method. The results suggest that a whole-body movement can be an engaging and viable controlling method for learning games, but its effects on performance and efficiency should be considered, especially in game-based assessment context.
KeywordsUser interface Human-computer interaction Whole-body movement Game-based learning User experience Number line estimation
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