Advertisement

Pan-Africanism, Regional Integration and Development in Africa

  • Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba
Chapter
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter examines the link between Pan-Africanism, regional integration and development in Africa. As leaders on the continent continue to grapple with the multiple challenges of achieving inclusive development and reclaiming Africa’s place in the global world, there are various ideas, actions and policies that are considered necessary for charting a new course. Pan-Africanism is both an ideological force and a theoretical foundation that underpins the desire and actions of Africans to protest, resist and champion the cause of freedom for Africans both on the continent and in the diaspora. Pan-Africanism provided the rallying point and ideological blueprint on which Afro-Americans like William Dubois, Marcus Garvey and others rode to challenge the racial oppression of the black race in the United States in the twentieth century. Regional integration in Africa flows from the logic of Pan-Africanism. It exemplifies attempts at moving beyond the nation-state to foster a higher level of development on the continent. The idea of development remains a contested one, appearing as a desirable destination, while at the same time appearing elusive. Despite the ebbs and flows of these three variables, they continue to occupy the minds of policy makers and civil society organisations, to varying degrees in Africa. This chapter interrogates the achievements, challenges and prospects of Pan-Africanism and regional integration in Africa in the twenty-first century. The chapter also provides a summary of other chapters in this volume.

References

  1. Adebajo, A. (2017, September 4). Alchemist of AU reform. Business Day.Google Scholar
  2. African Union. (n.d.). Economic, social and cultural council. Available: https://au.int/en/organs/ecosocc. Accessed 25 May 2019.
  3. Duodu, C. (2013). The birth of OAU. Available: https://www.modernghana.com/news/462788/the-birth-of-the-oau.html. Accessed 25 May 2019.
  4. Fagbayibo. (2016). Flexibility arrangements in the African union: A way out of the integration conundrum? Africa Review, 8(2), 156–170.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09744053.2016.1186870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fagbayibo, B. (2018). Nkrumahism, Agenda 2063, and the role of intergovernmental institutions in fast-tracking continental unity. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 53(4), 629–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mazrui, A. (1999). Seek Ye first the political kingdom. In A. Mazrui (Ed.), General history of Africa (pp. 105–126). Oxford: James Currey.Google Scholar
  7. Mkandawire, T. (2011). Running, while others walk. Knowledge and the challenge of Africa’s development. Africa Development, XXXVI(2), 1–36.Google Scholar
  8. Moyo, I., & Nshimbi, C. (2019). Border practices at Beitbridge border and Johannesburg Inner City: Implications for the SADC regional integration project. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 54(3), 309–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. (2013). Decolonial epistemic perspective and Pan-African Unity in the 21st century. In M. Munchie, P. Lukhele-Olorunju, & O. Akpor (Eds.), The African Union ten years after (pp. 385–409). Pretoria: African Institute of South Africa.Google Scholar
  10. Nkrumah, K. (1963). Africa must unite. London: Panaf Books.Google Scholar
  11. Nkrumah, K. (1965). Neo-colonialism: The last stage of imperialism. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Okeke, G. S. M. (2008). The uprooted immigrant: The impact of brain drain, brain gain and brain circulation on Africa’s development. In F. Toyin & N. Afolabi (Eds.), Trans-Atlantic migration: The paradoxes of exile. New York: Routlege.Google Scholar
  13. Oloruntoba, S. O. (2015). Pan Africanism, knowledge production and the third liberation of Africa. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies, Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, 10(1), 7–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oloruntoba, S. O. (2016). Regionalism and integration in Africa: EU-ACP economic partnership agreements and Euro-Nigeria relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prah, K. (1999). African renaissance or warlordism? In W. Makgoba (Ed.), African Renaissance (pp. 37–61). Sandton/Cape Town: Mafebe and Tafelberg Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Söderbaum, F. (2004). Theorizing the new regionalism approach. In The political economy of regionalism. International Political Economy Series. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Söderbaum, F. (2016). Old, new, and comparative regionalism: The history and scholarly development of the field. In T. Borzel & T. Risse (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative regionalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Thompson, V. (1969). Africa and unity: The evolution of Pan-Africanism. London: Longmans, Green and Company.Google Scholar
  19. Tondi, P. (2005). Pan-African thought and practice. Alternation, Special Edition 2, 301–328.Google Scholar
  20. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2016). African Continental Free Trade Area: Advancing Pan-African integration -some considerations. Available: http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/webditc2016d5_en.pdf. Accessed 3 June 2017.
  21. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). (2016). ECA urges Africa to push ahead with Continental Free Trade Area. Available: http://www.uneca.org/stories/eca-urges-africa-push-ahead-continental-free-trade-area. Accessed 4 June 2017.
  22. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). (2017). Assessing regional integration in Africa. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.Google Scholar
  23. World Bank. (2017). Migration and remittances. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  24. Zeleza, P. (2008). Africa and its diasporas: Dispersals and linkages. Dakar: CODESRIA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Ojo Oloruntoba
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Thabo Mbeki African Leadership InstituteUniversity of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Visiting Scholar, Institute of African StudiesCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations