The Impact of Recycled Plastic Waste in Morocco on Bitumen Physical and Rheological Properties

  • Nacer AkkouriEmail author
  • Khadija Baba
  • Sana Simou
  • Nassereddin Alanssari
  • Abderrahman Nounah
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Morocco is getting into the circular economy and wants to increase its overall recycling rate from 5% to more than 20%. Today we find that plastic waste production reaches the level of 1 million tons per year from which only 20 to 30% is recovered (Moroccan Federation of Plastics Processing 2016). In addition, we have the road sector in Morocco, where huge quantities of pure bitumen used increasingly, which affects greatly the economic balance of the country.

Therefore, this work enables us to study the impact of the addition of recycled plastic materials into the composition of bitumen in order to reduce the quantities of pure bitumen consumed and to recover plastic waste while improving the characteristics of bitumen used in road construction.

At first, the focus has been oriented to determine the abundance of recycled thermoplastic waste in Morocco, taking into account the needs of the existing plastics industries before analyzing the effect of adding different rates of recycled waste, namely Polypropylene (PP), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Polystyrene (PS), to a conventional 35/50 quality bitumen.

Basic rheological parameters such as penetration, softening point, elastic recovery and ageing (RTFOT) helped to determine the changes caused by each rate of plastic addition to the pure bitumen.

Tests showed that the penetrability of modified bitumen decreases, and its softening point as well as its elastic recovery increases, so as a result, the thermal sensibility and the aging rate of the new bitumen mixture decreases.


Polymers Recycled plastic waste Modified bitumen Bitumen 



The authors would like to acknowledge the Technical Centre for Plastics and Rubber (CTPC) and Public laboratory for tests and studies - Center for Studies and Research of Transport Infrastructures (CERIT), Morocco, for providing opportunities for experimental collaboration, we also thank to BITUMA company for providing research facilities.


  1. Abdullah, M.E., Abd Kader, S.A., Putra Jaya, R., et al.: Effect of waste plastic as bitumen modified in asphalt mixture. In: MATEC Web Conference, vol. 103, p. 09018 (2017a). Scholar
  2. Abdullah, M.E., Ahmad, N.A., Jaya, R.P., et al.: Effects of waste plastic on the physical and rheological properties of bitumen. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 204, p. 012016 (2017b). Scholar
  3. Airey, G.D.: Factors affecting the rheology of polymer modified bitumen (PMB). In: Polymer Modified Bitumen, pp. 238–263. Elsevier (2011)Google Scholar
  4. Alataş, T., Yilmaz, M.: Effects of different polymers on mechanical properties of bituminous binders and hot mixtures. Constr. Build. Mater. 42, 161–167 (2013). Scholar
  5. Alataş, T., Yılmaz, M., Kök, B.V., Koral, A.f.: Comparison of permanent deformation and fatigue resistance of hot mix asphalts prepared with the same performance grade binders. Constr. Build. Mater. 30, 66–72 (2012). Scholar
  6. Appiah, J.K., Berko-Boateng, V.N., Tagbor, T.A.: Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 6, 1–7 (2017). Scholar
  7. Asphalt Institute, European Bitumen Association: The bitumen industry: a global perspective: production, chemistry use, specification and occupational exposure (2015)Google Scholar
  8. Blazejowski, K., Dolzycki, B.: Relationships between asphalt mix rutting resistance and MSCR test results. In: Design, Analysis, and Asphalt Material Characterization for Road and Airfield Pavements, Yichang, Hubei, China, pp. 202–209. American Society of Civil Engineers (2014)Google Scholar
  9. Brasileiro, L.L., Moreno-Navarro, F., Martínez, R.T., et al.: Study of the feasability of producing modified asphalt bitumens using flakes made from recycled polymers. Constr. Build. Mater. 208, 269–282 (2019). Scholar
  10. Carreau, P.J., Bousmina, M., Bonniot, F.: The viscoelastic properties of polymer-modified asphalts. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78, 495–503 (2000). Scholar
  11. French Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Morocco (CFCIM) (2014) Waste-MoroccoGoogle Scholar
  12. Habib, N.Z., Kamaruddin, I., Napiah, M., Tan, I.M.: Rheological properties of polyethylene and polypropylene modified bitumen. Int. J. Civ. Environ. Eng. 4, 5 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. Hunter, R.N., Self, A., Read, J., Shell International Petroleum Co. (eds.): The Shell Bitumen Handbook, 6th edn. ICE Publishing/Telford, London (2015)Google Scholar
  14. Isacsson, U., Zeng, H.: Relationships between bitumen chemistry and low temperature behaviour of asphalt. Constr. Build. Mater. 11, 83–91 (1997). Scholar
  15. John, R., David, W.: The Shell Bitumen Handbook, 5th edn. (2003)Google Scholar
  16. Köfteci, S., Ahmedzade, P., Kultayev, B.: Performance evaluation of bitumen modified by various types of waste plastics. Constr. Build. Mater. 73, 592–602 (2014). Scholar
  17. Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Logistics and Water, Morocco: Road network of the kingdom (2019). Accessed 30 May 2019
  18. Nouali, M., Derriche, Z., Ghorbel, E., Chuanqiang, L.: Plastic bag waste modified bitumen a possible solution to the Algerian road pavements. Road Mater. Pavement Des. 1–13 (2019).
  19. Plastics Europe: Plastics – the Facts : an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data (2017)Google Scholar
  20. Polacco, G., Berlincioni, S., Biondi, D., et al.: Asphalt modification with different polyethylene-based polymers. Eur. Polym. J. 41, 2831–2844 (2005). Scholar
  21. Polacco, G., Filippi, S., Merusi, F., Stastna, G.: A review of the fundamentals of polymer-modified asphalts: asphalt/polymer interactions and principles of compatibility. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 224, 72–112 (2015). Scholar
  22. Ragni, D., Ferrotti, G., Lu, X., Canestrari, F.: Effect of temperature and chemical additives on the short-term ageing of polymer modified bitumen for WMA. Mater. Des. 160, 514–526 (2018). Scholar
  23. Singh, N., Hui, D., Singh, R., et al.: Recycling of plastic solid waste: a state of art review and future applications. Compos. Part B Eng. 115, 409–422 (2017). Scholar
  24. Tauste, R., Moreno-Navarro, F., Sol-Sánchez, M., Rubio-Gámez, M.C.: Understanding the bitumen ageing phenomenon: a review. Constr. Build. Mater. 192, 593–609 (2018). Scholar
  25. Tayfur, S., Ozen, H., Aksoy, A.: Investigation of rutting performance of asphalt mixtures containing polymer modifiers. Constr. Build. Mater. 21, 328–337 (2007). Scholar
  26. Tsantilis, L., Dalmazzo, D., Baglieri, O., Santagata, E.: Effect of SBS molecular structure on the rheological properties of ternary nanomodified bituminous binders. Constr. Build. Mater. 222, 183–192 (2019). Scholar
  27. Van den Bergh, W.: The effect of ageing on the fatigue and healing properties of bituminous mortars. [s.n.] (2011)Google Scholar
  28. Wang, T., Yi, T., Yuzhen, Z.: The compatibility of SBS-modified asphalt. Pet. Sci. Technol. 28, 764–772 (2010). Scholar
  29. Weigel, S., Stephan, D.: The prediction of bitumen properties based on FTIR and multivariate analysis methods. Fuel 208, 655–661 (2017). Scholar
  30. Yao, Z., Zhang, J., Gao, F., et al.: Integrated utilization of recycled crumb rubber and polyethylene for enhancing the performance of modified bitumen. Constr. Build. Mater. 170, 217–224 (2018). Scholar
  31. Zhu, J., Birgisson, B., Kringos, N.: Polymer modification of bitumen: advances and challenges. Eur. Polym. J. 54, 18–38 (2014). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nacer Akkouri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Khadija Baba
    • 2
  • Sana Simou
    • 1
  • Nassereddin Alanssari
    • 3
  • Abderrahman Nounah
    • 2
  1. 1.Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), Civil Engineering, Water, Environment and Geosciences Centre (CICEEG), Mohammadia Engineering SchoolMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco
  2. 2.Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), School of Technology-SaléMohammed V UniversityRabatMorocco
  3. 3.Technical Centre for Plastics and Rubber (CTPC)CasablancaMorocco

Personalised recommendations