Numerical Analysis for the Evaluation of Pull-Out Capacity of Helical Anchors in Sand

  • Akhil Pandey
  • Vinay Bhushan ChauhanEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Plate anchors play a significant role in the stabilization of various geotechnical structures. In recent years, the use of helical anchors has extended beyond their traditional use in the foundations. Faster installation and instant loading capabilities have increased their use in multiple infrastructure applications. Through the past few decades, researches have been carried out many studies to determine the pull-out capacity of plate anchor, which has led to the development of many analytical solutions. Unfortunately, the current understanding of helical anchors is unsatisfactory to lay the appropriate framework to be followed by practicing engineers. To have an economic and safer design which leads to increased confidence in design, this study is aimed to use numerical modeling techniques to understand the behavior of helical anchors in the sand and their failure mechanism. Subsequently, the present study focuses on the numerical investigation of pullout capacity of helical anchors with the consideration of various important parameters like embedment depth (H) and anchor plate diameter, D provisioned in the sands of the wide range of relative density i.e. loose, medium and dense sand. It is noted from the results of the present study that the pullout capacity of an anchor provided at sufficiently high value of embedment ratio (H/D) is in excellent agreement with the exact solution proposed by previous researchers. Moreover, a numerical analysis using finite element method with consideration of upper and lower bound limit analysis is carried out for the evaluation of the pull-out capacity of plate anchor (qu) in multi-layered sand deposit and the variation of qu with H/D ratio is also presented. Furthermore, the associated failure mechanism of the plate anchors is also analyzed and discussed thoroughly in the present work.


Numerical modeling Helical anchors Pull-out capacity Finite element method 


  1. Andresen, L., et al.: Finite element analyses applied in design of foundations and anchors for offshores structures. Int. J. Geomech. (2011). Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya, P., Kumar, J.: Uplift capacity of anchors in layered sand and using finite-element limit analysis: formulation and results. Int. J. Geomech. (2016). Scholar
  3. Choudhary, A.K., Dash, S.K.: Load-carrying mechanism of vertical plate anchors in sand. Int. J. Geomech. (2016). Scholar
  4. Dickin, E.A.: Uplift behaviour of horizontal anchor plates in sand. Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 114(11), 1300–1317 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghaly, A.: Uplift behaviour of screw anchors in sand. Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 117(5), 773–793 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghaly, A.M., Clemence, S.P.: Pullout performance of inclined helical screw anchors in sand. Int. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 124(7), 617–627 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jinyuan, Liu, et al.: Sand deformation around an uplift plate anchor. Int. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. (2012). Scholar
  8. Kouzer, K.M., Kumar, J.: Vertical uplift capacity of equally spaced horizontal strip anchors in sand. Int. J. Geomech. (2009). Scholar
  9. Kumar, J., Sahoo, J.P.: Upper bound solution for pullout capacity of vertical anchors in sand using finite elements and limit analysis. Int. J. Geomech. (2012). Scholar
  10. Mosquera, Z., et al.: Serviceability performance evaluation of helical piles under uplift loading. J. Perform. Constructed Facil. (2015). Scholar
  11. Niroumand, H., et al.: Performance of helical anchors in sand. Electron. J. Geotech. Eng. 17, 2683–2702 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. Spagnoli, G., et al.: Estimation of uplift capacity and installation power of helical piles in sand for offshore structures. J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. (2018). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering DepartmentMadan Mohan Malaviya University of TechnologyGorakhpurIndia

Personalised recommendations