Contemporary Microecological Strategies of Gut Microbiota Modulation for Human Health Preservation, Restoration and Improvement
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For health preservation and reducing the risk of premature ageing and related metabolic diseases, human diet should include various traditional, organic and functional foods as well as therapeutics that support alimentary and other functions of gut microbiota. To create or restore the impaired human biocenoses, various targeted microecological techniques and methods are used (Table 1), with a focus on either prevention or treatment. In the longer term, these approaches can be used in microecological engineering of pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, as well as infants for shaping their targeted microbial ecology. It should be remembered that though the responses of the host-microbiota system to the implementation of different dietary and microecological agents are on the whole predictable, they can vary considerably from individual to individual as far as their focus, efficiency and distinct manifestations are concerned (Shenderov 2014b; Lenoir-Wijnkoop et al. 2007; Shenderov 2011b; Sonnenburg and Backhed 2016). Since 1950s, over 150 different microecological therapeutics have been developed and produced commercially for prevention and treatment of diseases related to the imbalance of symbiotic microbiota. To preserve and restore human microbial ecology, a wide range of microecological therapeutics are used (probiotics, symbiotics, combiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, virobiotics (including phagobiotics), genetically engineered probiotics, metabiotics), as well as the technique of transplantation of large intestine microbiota.
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