As regards cell quantitative content, a human being is essentially a more prokaryotic than eukaryotic organism. Great success has been achieved in the characterization of microorganisms inhabiting the human being, all their genetic elements have been explored in detail by using leading-edge molecular sequencing techniques. The state of “host-its microbiota” system is one of the leading factors that determine the growth, development and health of a human being; the importance of the microbiome in the pathogenesis, phenotype, prognosis of many diseases has been established. Symbiotic (indigenous) microorganisms inhabiting his/her skin and mucosa are a source of various low molecular weight compounds involved in environmental perception, in bacterial information intra- and intercellular exchange both among themselves and with the host cells, in the regulation of physiological functions, biochemical and behavioral responses. Different strains form their own strain-specific range of similar substrates, co-factors, enzymes and regulatory molecules which bear chemical and functional similarity with those produced by the host’s eukaryotic cells and numerous micronutrients contained in food products. It means that many compounds of microbial origin should be viewed as universal low molecular weight substrates and co-factors of epigenetic, metabolic, immune, neurohormonal reactions, diffuse regulatory endocrine system (APUD system) and the participants of intra- and interpopulation communication between bacteria and the host eukaryotic cells. Bioactive molecules of microbial origin are capable of interaction with the host cells through binding to the receptors of membranes, mitochondria, ribosomes. These molecules can also be accumulated in intracellular exosomes and regulate intercellular and intracellular channels, influencing the structure, synthesis, transfer and function of regulatory and signaling molecules (Shenderov 2014; Shenderov 2016; Aguilar-Toaláa et al. 2018; Bik et al. 2018; Engevik and Versalovic 2017; Gilbert et al. 2016; Lebeer et al. 2018; Maguire and Maguire 2019; Shenderov 2011a; Shenderov 2011b; Shenderov 2013; Singh et al. 2018).
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