Ocular Features in Turner Syndrome
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The prevalence of ocular disorders is higher in individuals with Turner syndrome than in the general population. Significant refractive error and strabismus are common and can lead to irreversible amblyopia if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Ptosis and color vision deficiency are also commonly seen, with varying impact on daily activities and visual development. Nystagmus, congenital or childhood onset cataracts, and glaucoma are rare in any population, but are more frequent in the setting of Turner syndrome. Regular ophthalmologic examinations beginning in the first 12–18 months of life, or sooner if concerns are identified, are important to ensure timely identification and management of ocular disorders to maximize the visual potential of children with Turner syndrome.
KeywordsTurner syndrome Strabismus Refractive error Amblyopia Ptosis Color vision deficiency Nystagmus
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