Conclusion: Defamiliarizing Electronic Monitoring
This chapter offers a number of reflections on how an exploration of the functions of electronic monitoring is useful for understanding EM in contemporary cultures of surveillance. The functional analysis inspired by Willem Nagel’s study of imprisonment is presented as a prolegomenon that helps to defamiliarize electronic monitoring, that is, it helps asking questions that ‘…make evident things into puzzles’ (Bauman 1990: 15). Three questions are being addressed in this final chapter: do we have too little or too much electronic monitoring?; is electronic monitoring a failure or a success?; is electronic monitoring Appolonian or Dyonisian?
KeywordsElectronic monitoring Imprisonment Sociology of punishment Surveillance
- Bagaric, M., Hunter, D., & Wolf, G. (2018). Technological incarceration and the end of the prison crisis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 108(1), 73–135.Google Scholar
- Bauman, Z. (1990). Thinking sociologically. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Council of Europe. (2014). Recommendation CM/Rec(2014)4 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on electronic monitoring. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 February 2014, at the 1192nd meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.Google Scholar
- Daems, T. (2019). Defamiliarizing punishment. In F. Focquaert, E. Shaw, & B. Waller (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of the philosophy and science of punishment. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Durkheim, E. (1933). The division of labor in society. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
- Lévy, T. (2006). Nos têtes sont plus dures que les murs des prisons. Paris: Grasset.Google Scholar
- Lyon, D. (2018). The culture of surveillance: Watching as a way of life. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Nagel, W. H. (1977). De funkties van de vrijheidstraf. Samson: Alphen aan den Rijn.Google Scholar
- Nellis, M. (2015). Standards and ethics in electronic monitoring: Handbook for professionals responsible for the establishment and the use of electronic monitoring. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
- Nellis, M. (2018). Clean and dirty electronic monitoring. Justice Trends, 3, 14–19.Google Scholar
- Nellis, M. (2019). “Better than human”? Smartphones, artificial intelligence and ultra-punitive electronic monitoring. Available at https://www.challengingecarceration.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/TI-and-Smart-EM-Final-.pdf.
- Pakes, F. (2019, August 4). A different way of doing things. https://www.thejusticegap.com/proof-magazine-a-different-way-of-doing-things/.
- Simon, J., & Sparks, R. (Eds.). (2012). The Sage handbook of punishment and society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Sparks, R. (2003). State punishment in advanced capitalist countries. In T. G. Blomberg & S. Cohen (Eds.), Punishment and social control (Enlarged 2nd ed.) (pp. 19–44). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Spierenburg, P. (2004). Punishment, power and history: Foucault and Elias. Social Science History, 28(4), 607–636.Google Scholar