The Bone Marrow Niche – The Tumor Microenvironment That Ensures Leukemia Progression

  • Bruno António CardosoEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1219)


The human body requires a constant delivery of fresh blood cells that are needed to maintain body homeostasis. Hematopoiesis is the process that drives the formation of new blood cells from a single stem cell. This is a complex, orchestrated and tightly regulated process that occurs within the bone marrow. When such process is faulty or deregulated, leukemia arises, develops and thrives by subverting normal hematopoiesis and availing the supplies of this rich milieu.

In this book chapter we will describe and characterize the bone marrow microenvironment and its key importance for leukemia expansion. The several components of the bone marrow niche, their interaction with the leukemic cells and the cellular pathways activated within the malignant cells will be emphasized. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies to target this sibling interaction will also be discussed.


Hematopoiesis Leukemia Bone marrow Microenvironment Signaling pathways Dual-targeting 



3-Phosphinositide-dependent Protein Kinase






Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


Acute Myeloid Leukemia


B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


Bone Marrow


Bone Morphogenetic Protein


Central Nervous System


Chronic Myeloid Leukemia


Colony-stimulating Factor


Common Lymphoid Progenitor


Common Myeloid Progenitor


CXCL12 Abundant Reticular cells


C-X-C chemokine receptor 4


C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12






Desert Hedgehog


Early T-cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


Endothelial Cells


Extracellular Matrix


Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4


Fatty Acid Oxidation


Fibroblast Growht Factor


Fetal Liver




Granulocyte-monocyte Progenitors


Granulocyte-stimulating factor


Glioma Zinc Finger Transcription Factor


Hematopoietic Stem Cell


Hypoxia Inducible Factor


Indian Hedgehog




Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein




Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1


Intracellular Notch


Janus kinase


Leptin receptor


Leukemia Initiating Cell


Leukemic Stem Cell


Lin Sca-1+ c-Kit+


Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cell


Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1


Mammalian Target of Rapamycin


Megakaryocyte-erythrocyte Progenitors


Mesenchymal Stem Cell








Patient-derived Xenograft


Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue


Phosphatidyl-Inositol 4,5-Bisphosphate


Phosphatidyl-Inositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate




Protein Kinase B


Red Blood Cell


Short-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cell


Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription




Sonic Hedgehog


Stem Cell Factor


Stromal Cell


Stromal Derived Factor -1


Sympathetic neural cells


T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia


T-cell factor/Lymphoid enhancer binding factor


Transforming Growth Factor




Tumor Necrosis Factor


Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor


Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1


Vascular Endothelial


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor


Very Late Antigen-4


von Hippel-Lindau


Wingless and INT-1


World Health Organization




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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo AntunesFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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