Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Aquatic Environment by Membrane Technology

  • Xiuzhen WeiEmail author
  • Xufeng Xu
  • Cuixia Li
  • Jiawei Wu
  • Jinyuan Chen
  • Bosheng LvEmail author
  • Jianli WangEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 42)


Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as emerging environmental contaminants have attracted increasing attention because of their potential adverse effects on humans and wildlife. PPCPs are frequently detected in surface and groundwater worldwide at concentrations of ng/L or ug/L. However, traditional activated sludge treatment process used in sewage treatment plants cannot effectively remove PPCPs from water. It has been confirmed that trace PPCPs can cause fish growth malformations, sex disorders, and even death, which raises concerns about the potential adverse effects of PPCPs. Membrane separation technologies have been confirmed to be suitable for the removal of PPCPs from water because they are simple to operate, effective, and economical.

This work will present a review on mechanisms, efficiency, and influence factors of PPCPs removal by ultrafiltration membranes, reverse osmosis membranes, and nanofiltration membranes. For ultrafiltration membranes, the removal efficiencies of PPCPs are relatively lower. But ultrafiltration membranes can be used to treat wastewater that contains PPCPs if they are combined with other treatment processes. Reverse osmosis membranes can effectively remove PPCPs molecules. However, the reverse osmosis process is not economical compared with nanofiltration membranes. Normally, the main mechanisms for nanofiltration membranes to remove PPCPs include size exclusion, electrostatic exclusion, and hydrophobic adsorption. For nanofiltration membranes, the removal efficiencies of PPCPs are affected by many factors, including the PPCPs characteristics, water quality conditions, and nanofiltration membrane characteristics. Nanofiltration membranes show great prospects for PPCPs wastewater treatment because of their relatively higher removal efficiency and lower energy consumption.


PPCPs Removal efficiency Activated sludge Surface water Groundwater Environmental risk Membrane technology Ultrafiltration membrane Reverse osmosis membrane Nanofiltration membrane 



The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. LY19E030005), MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University (2017MSF05). The authors also sincerely thank the Open Foundation from the Top Key Discipline of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology (Grant No. 20150314).


  1. Acero JL, Benitez FJ, Teva F, Leal AI (2010) Retention of emerging micropollutants from UP water and a municipal secondary effluent by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alder AC, Schaffner C, Majewsky M, Klasmeier J, Fenner K (2010) Fate of β-blocker human pharmaceuticals in surface water: comparison of measured and simulated concentrations in the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso JJS, El Kori N, Melián-Martel N, Del Río-Gamero B (2018) Removal of ciprofloxacin from seawater by reverse osmosis. J Environ Manag 217:337–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Qaim FF, Mussa ZH, Othman MR, Abdullah MP (2015) Removal of caffeine from aqueous solution by indirect electrochemical oxidation using a graphite-PVC composite electrode: a role of hypochlorite ion as an oxidising agent. J Hazard Mater. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrzejewski P, Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Nawrocki J (2008) N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation during ozonation of dimethylamine-containing waters. Water Res. 42(4-5):863–870. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arsuaga JM, López-Muñoz MJ, Aguado J, Sotto A (2008) Temperature, pH and concentration effects on retention and transport of organic pollutants across thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Azaïs A, Mendret J, Petit E, Brosillon S (2016) Evidence of solute-solute interactions and cake enhanced concentration polarization during removal of pharmaceuticals from urban wastewater by nanofiltration. Water Res 104:156–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Back JO, Obholzer T, Winkler K, Jabornig S, Rupprich M (2018) Combining ultrafiltration and non-thermal plasma for low energy degradation of pharmaceuticals from conventionally treated wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 6:7377–7385. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baghbanzadeh M, Rana D, Lan CQ, Matsuura T (2017) Zero thermal input membrane distillation, a zero-waste and sustainable solution for freshwater shortage. Appl Energy. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagheripour E, Moghadassi AR, Hosseini SM, Ray MB, Parvizian F, Van der Bruggen B (2018) Highly hydrophilic and antifouling nanofiltration membrane incorporated with water-dispersible composite activated carbon/chitosan nanoparticles. Chem Eng Res Des. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balakrishna K, Rath A, Praveenkumarreddy Y, Guruge KS, Subedi B (2017) A review of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Indian water bodies. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Behera SK, Kim HW, Oh JE, Park HS (2011) Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea. Sci Total Environ 409:4351–4360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bisesi JH, Bridges W, Klaine SJ (2014) Reprint of: effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior. Aquat Toxicol 151:88–96. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blair B, Nikolaus A, Hedman C, Klaper R, Grundl T (2015) Evaluating the degradation, sorption, and negative mass balances of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during wastewater treatment. Chemosphere. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boleda MR, Galceran MT, Ventura F (2011) Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments. Environ Pollut 159:1584–1591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boy-Roura M, Mas-Pla J, Petrovic M, Gros M, Soler D, Brusi D, Menció A (2018) Towards the understanding of antibiotic occurrence and transport in groundwater: findings from the Baix Fluvià alluvial aquifer (NE Catalonia, Spain). Sci Total Environ 612:1387–1406. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cantwell MG, Katz DR, Sullivan JC, Shapley D, Lipscomb J, Epstein J, Juhl AR, Knudson C, O’Mullan GD (2018) Spatial patterns of pharmaceuticals and wastewater tracers in the Hudson River Estuary. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carmona E, Andreu V, Picó Y (2014) Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang X, Meyer MT, Liu X, Zhao Q, Chen H, Chen J a, Qiu Z, Yang L, Cao J, Shu W (2010) Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China. Environ Pollut. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chew CM, Aroua MK, Hussain MA (2018) Advanced process control for ultrafiltration membrane water treatment system. J Clean Prod. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chollom MN, Pikwa K, Rathilal S, Pillay VL (2017) Fouling mitigation on a woven fibre microfiltration membrane for the treatment of raw water. S Afr J Chem Eng. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chon K, Kyong Shon H, Cho J (2012) Membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration hybrid system for reclamation of municipal wastewater: removal of nutrients, organic matter and micropollutants. Bioresour Technol 122:181–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chon K, Cho J, Shon HK (2013) A pilot-scale hybrid municipal wastewater reclamation system using combined coagulation and disk filtration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis: removal of nutrients and micropollutants, and characterization of membrane foulants. Bioresour Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Comerton AM, Andrews RC, Bagley DM, Yang P (2007) Membrane adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceutically active compounds. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Comerton AM, Andrews RC, Bagley DM, Hao C (2008) The rejection of endocrine disrupting and pharmaceutically active compounds by NF and RO membranes as a function of compound and water matrix properties. J Membr Sci 313:323–335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dai G, Wang B, Huang J, Dong R, Deng S, Yu G (2015) Occurrence and source apportionment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the Beiyun River of Beijing, China. Chemosphere. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Souza DI, Dottein EM, Giacobbo A, Siqueira Rodrigues MA, de Pinho MN, Bernardes AM (2018) Nanofiltration for the removal of norfloxacin from pharmaceutical effluent. J Environ Chem Eng 6:6147–6153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deshmukh SS, Childress AE (2001) Zeta potential of commercial RO membranes: influence of source water type and chemistry. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dodgen LK, Ueda A, Wu X, Parker DR, Gan J (2015) Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs. Environ Pollut 198:144–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dolar D, Vuković A, Ašperger D, Košutić K (2011) Effect of water matrices on removal of veterinary pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. J Environ Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dukhin AS, Parlia S (2012) Studying homogeneity and zeta potential of membranes using electroacoustics. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Emnet P, Gaw S, Northcott G, Storey B, Graham L (2015) Personal care products and steroid hormones in the Antarctic coastal environment associated with two Antarctic research stations, McMurdo Station and Scott Base. Environ Res 136:331–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Esplugas S, Bila DM, Krause LGT, Dezotti M (2007) Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents. J Hazard Mater. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fernández-López C, Guillén-Navarro JM, Padilla JJ, Parsons JR (2016) Comparison of the removal efficiencies of selected pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants in the region of Murcia, Spain. Ecol Eng. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fonseca Couto C, Lange LC, Santos Amaral MC (2018) A critical review on membrane separation processes applied to remove pharmaceutically active compounds from water and wastewater. J Water Process Eng 26:156–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foureaux AFS, Reis EO, Lebron Y, Moreira V, Santos LV, Amaral MS, Lange LC (2019) Rejection of pharmaceutical compounds from surface water by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Sep Purif Technol 212:171–179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fram MS, Belitz K (2011) Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California. Sci Total Environ 409:3409–3417. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fujioka T, Hoang AT, Okuda T, Takeuchi H, Tanaka H, Nghiem LD (2018) Water reclamation using a ceramic nanofiltration membrane and surface flushing with ozonated water. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gao J, O’Brien J, Du P, Li X, Ort C, Mueller JF, Thai PK (2016) Measuring selected PPCPs in wastewater to estimate the population in different cities in China. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gao Q, Blum KM, Gago-Ferrero P, Wiberg K, Ahrens L, Andersson PL (2019) Impact of on-site wastewater infiltration systems on organic contaminants in groundwater and recipient waters. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garcia-Ivars J, Durá-María J, Moscardó-Carreño C, Carbonell-Alcaina C, Alcaina-Miranda MI, Iborra-Clar MI (2017) Rejection of trace pharmaceutically active compounds present in municipal wastewaters using ceramic fine ultrafiltration membranes: effect of feed solution pH and fouling phenomena. Sep Purif Technol 175:58–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gardner M, Comber S, Scrimshaw MD, Cartmell E, Lester J, Ellor B (2012) The significance of hazardous chemicals in wastewater treatment works effluents. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gmurek M, Olak-Kucharczyk M, Ledakowicz S (2017) Photochemical decomposition of endocrine disrupting compounds – a review. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gonzalez B, Heijman SGJ, Rietveld LC, van Halem D (2019) As(V) rejection by NF membranes using high temperature sources for drinking water production. Groundw Sustain Dev 8:198–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grabicova K, Lindberg RH, Östman M, Grabic R, Randak T, Joakim Larsson DG, Fick J (2014) Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grabicova K, Grabic R, Fedorova G, Fick J, Cerveny D, Kolarova J, Turek J, Zlabek V, Randak T (2017) Bioaccumulation of psychoactive pharmaceuticals in fish in an effluent dominated stream. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gur-Reznik S, Koren-Menashe I, Heller-Grossman L, Rufel O, Dosoretz CG (2011) Influence of seasonal and operating conditions on the rejection of pharmaceutical active compounds by RO and NF membranes. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hossain A, Nakamichi S, Habibullah-Al-Mamun M, Tani K, Masunaga S, Matsuda H (2018) Occurrence and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals in river surface water of Bangladesh. Environ Res 165:258–266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huerta B, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lazorchak J, Barcelo D, Batt A, Wathen J, Stahl L (2018) Presence of pharmaceuticals in fish collected from urban rivers in the U.S. EPA 2008–2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ji YL, An QF, Zhao Q, Sun WD, Lee KR, Chen HL, Gao CJ (2012) Novel composite nanofiltration membranes containing zwitterions with high permeate flux and improved anti-fouling performance. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones OAH, Voulvoulis N, Lester JN (2005) Human pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment processes. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jurado A, Vàzquez-Suñé E, Carrera J, López de Alda M, Pujades E, Barceló D (2012) Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater in Spain: a review of sources, recent occurrence and fate in a European context. Sci Total Environ 440:82–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. K’oreje KO, Kandie FJ, Vergeynst L, Abira MA, Van Langenhove H, Okoth M, Demeestere K (2018) Occurrence, fate and removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides in wastewater stabilization ponds and receiving rivers in the Nzoia Basin, Kenya. Sci Total Environ 637–638:336–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kanakaraju D, Glass BD, Oelgemöller M (2018) Advanced oxidation process-mediated removal of pharmaceuticals from water: a review. J Environ Manag. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kapelewska J, Kotowska U, Karpińska J, Kowalczuk D, Arciszewska A, Świrydo A (2018) Occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of emerging organic contaminants in leachates, groundwaters and wastewaters. Microchem J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2008) The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kibuye FA, Gall HE, Elkin KR, Ayers B, Veith TL, Miller M, Jacob S, Hayden KR, Watson JE, Elliott HA (2019) Fate of pharmaceuticals in a spray-irrigation system: from wastewater to groundwater. Sci Total Environ 654:197–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim I, Tanaka H (2009) Photodegradation characteristics of PPCPs in water with UV treatment. Environ Int. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimura K, Iwase T, Kita S, Watanabe Y (2009) Influence of residual organic macromolecules produced in biological wastewater treatment processes on removal of pharmaceuticals by NF/RO membranes. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klavarioti M, Mantzavinos D, Kassinos D (2009) Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes. Environ Int. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kosma CI, Lambropoulou DA, Albanis TA (2014) Investigation of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants in Greece: occurrence, removal and environmental risk assessment. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME, Ward RS (2012) Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: a review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environ Pollut. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee CO, Howe KJ, Thomson BM (2012) Ozone and biofiltration as an alternative to reverse osmosis for removing PPCPs and micropollutants from treated wastewater. Water Res 46:1005–1014. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leijon J, Boström C (2018) Freshwater production from the motion of ocean waves – a review. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leung HW, Minh TB, Murphy MB, Lam JCW, So MK, Martin M, Lam PKS, Richardson BJ (2012) Distribution, fate and risk assessment of antibiotics in sewage treatment plants in Hong Kong, South China. Environ Int. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li W, Shi Y, Gao L, Liu J, Cai Y (2015) Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in an advanced wastewater treatment plant. J Hazard Mater. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li W, Nanaboina V, Chen F, Korshin GV (2016) Removal of polycyclic synthetic musks and antineoplastic drugs in ozonated wastewater: quantitation based on the data of differential spectroscopy. J Hazard Mater. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li A, Wu Z, Wang T, Hou S, Huang B, Kong X, Li X, Guan Y, Qiu R, Fang J (2018a) Kinetics and mechanisms of the degradation of PPCPs by zero-valent iron (Fe°) activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) system in groundwater. J Hazard Mater. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li C, Yang Y, Liu Y, Hou L a (2018b) Removal of PhACs and their impacts on membrane fouling in NF/RO membrane filtration of various matrices. J Membr Sci 548:439–448. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Licona KPM, Geaquinto LR d O, Nicolini JV, Figueiredo NG, Chiapetta SC, Habert AC, Yokoyama L (2018) Assessing potential of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for removal of toxic pharmaceuticals from water. J Water Process Eng 25:195–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lin YL (2017) Effects of organic, biological and colloidal fouling on the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. J Membr Sci 542:342–351. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lin YL (2018) In situ concentration-polarization-enhanced radical graft polymerization of NF270 for mitigating silica fouling and improving pharmaceutical and personal care product rejection. J Membr Sci 552:387–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lin Y-L, Lee C-H (2014) Elucidating the rejection mechanisms of PPCPs by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. Ind Eng Chem Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lin YL, Chiou JH, Lee CH (2014) Effect of silica fouling on the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. J Hazard Mater 277:102–109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lin H, Chen L, Li H, Luo Z, Lu J, Yang Z (2018a) Pharmaceutically active compounds in the Xiangjiang River, China: distribution pattern, source apportionment, and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lin YL, Tsai CC, Zheng NY (2018b) Improving the organic and biological fouling resistance and removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products through nanofiltration by using in situ radical graft polymerization. Sci Total Environ 635:543–550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu C (2019) Enhancement of dewaterability and heavy metals solubilization of waste activated sludge conditioned by natural vanadium-titanium magnetite-activated peroxymonosulfate oxidation with rice husk. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liu JL, Wong MH (2013) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China. Environ Int 59:208–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liu X, Lu S, Guo W, Xi B, Wang W (2018) Antibiotics in the aquatic environments: a review of lakes, China. Sci Total Environ 627:1195–1208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Liu Y l, Wang X m, Yang H w, Xie YF, Huang X (2019) Preparation of nanofiltration membranes for high rejection of organic micropollutants and low rejection of divalent cations. J Membr Sci 572:152–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Loos R, Carvalho R, António DC, Comero S, Locoro G, Tavazzi S, Paracchini B, Ghiani M, Lettieri T, Blaha L, Jarosova B, Voorspoels S, Servaes K, Haglund P, Fick J, Lindberg RH, Schwesig D, Gawlik BM (2013) EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. López-Serna R, Jurado A, Vázquez-Suñé E, Carrera J, Petrović M, Barceló D (2013) Occurrence of 95 pharmaceuticals and transformation products in urban groundwaters underlying the metropolis of Barcelona, Spain. Environ Pollut 174:305–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Luo J, Wan Y (2011) Effect of highly concentrated salt on retention of organic solutes by nanofiltration polymeric membranes. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Luo Y, Guo W, Ngo HH, Nghiem LD, Hai FI, Zhang J, Liang S, Wang XC (2014) A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ 473–474:619–641. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ma C, Yu S, Shi W, Heijman SGJ, Rietveld LC (2013) Effect of different temperatures on performance and membrane fouling in high concentration PAC-MBR system treating micro-polluted surface water. Bioresour Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ma R, Wang B, Lu S, Zhang Y, Yin L, Huang J, Deng S, Wang Y, Yu G (2016) Characterization of pharmaceutically active compounds in Dongting Lake, China: occurrence, chiral profiling and environmental risk. Sci Total Environ 557–558:268–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ma L, Liu Y, Zhang J, Yang Q, Li G, Zhang D (2018) Impacts of irrigation water sources and geochemical conditions on vertical distribution of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the vadose zone soils. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mailler R, Gasperi J, Coquet Y, Deshayes S, Zedek S, Cren-Olivé C, Cartiser N, Eudes V, Bressy A, Caupos E, Moilleron R, Chebbo G, Rocher V (2014) Study of a large scale powdered activated carbon pilot: removals of a wide range of emerging and priority micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin Ruel S, Esperanza M, Choubert JM, Valor I, Budzinski H, Coquery M (2010) On-site evaluation of the efficiency of conventional and advanced secondary processes for the removal of 60 organic micropollutants. Water Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McClellan K, Halden RU (2010) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA national sewage sludge survey. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Meffe R, de Bustamante I (2014) Emerging organic contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a first overview of the situation in Italy. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nakada N, Komori K, Suzuki Y, Konishi C, Houwa I, Tanaka H (2007) Occurrence of 70 pharmaceutical and personal care products in Tone River basin in Japan. Water Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nakada N, Hanamoto S, Jürgens MD, Johnson AC, Bowes MJ, Tanaka H (2017) Assessing the population equivalent and performance of wastewater treatment through the ratios of pharmaceuticals and personal care products present in a river basin: application to the River Thames basin, UK. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Narbaitz RM, Rana D, Dang HT, Morrissette J, Matsuura T, Jasim SY, Tabe S, Yang P (2013) Pharmaceutical and personal care products removal from drinking water by modified cellulose acetate membrane: field testing. Chem Eng J 225:848–856. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Neale PA, Schäfer AI (2012) Quantification of solute-solute interactions in steroidal hormone removal by ultrafiltration membranes. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nghiem LD, Hawkes S (2007) Effects of membrane fouling on the nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs): mechanisms and role of membrane pore size. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nghiem LD, Manis A, Soldenhoff K, Schäfer AI (2004) Estrogenic hormone removal from wastewater using NF/RO membranes. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Nie Y, Qiang Z, Zhang H, Ben W (2012) Fate and seasonal variation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in a sewage treatment plant with A/A/O process. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nikolaou A, Meric S, Fatta D (2007) Occurrence patterns of pharmaceuticals in water and wastewater environments. Anal Bioanal Chem. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nödler K, Licha T, Barbieri M, Pérez S (2012) Evidence for the microbially mediated abiotic formation of reversible and non-reversible sulfamethoxazole transformation products during denitrification. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ogutverici A, Yilmaz L, Yetis U, Dilek FB (2016) Triclosan removal by NF from a real drinking water source – effect of natural organic matter. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ouyang Z, Huang Z, Tang X, Xiong C, Tang M, Lu Y (2019) A dually charged nanofiltration membrane by pH-responsive polydopamine for pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal. Sep Purif Technol 211:90–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Papageorgiou M, Kosma C, Lambropoulou D (2016) Seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Central Greece. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Parolini M, Pedriali A, Binelli A (2013) Application of a biomarker response index for ranking the toxicity of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) to the bivalve Dreissena polymorpha. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Peng X, Yu Y, Tang C, Tan J, Huang Q, Wang Z (2008) Occurrence of steroid estrogens, endocrine-disrupting phenols, and acid pharmaceutical residues in urban riverine water of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Peng X, Ou W, Wang C, Wang Z, Huang Q, Jin J, Tan J (2014) Occurrence and ecological potential of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in groundwater and reservoirs in the vicinity of municipal landfills in China. Sci Total Environ 490:889–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pereira AMPT, Silva LJG, Laranjeiro CSM, Meisel LM, Lino CM, Pena A (2017) Human pharmaceuticals in Portuguese rivers: the impact of water scarcity in the environmental risk. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Petrie B, Barden R, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2014) A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pothitou P, Voutsa D (2008) Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece. Chemosphere. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Prasse C, Schlüsener MP, Schulz R, Ternes TA (2010) Antiviral drugs in wastewater and surface waters: a new pharmaceutical class of environmental relevance? Environ Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Radjenović J, Petrović M, Ventura F, Barceló D (2008) Rejection of pharmaceuticals in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membrane drinking water treatment. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rana D, Scheier B, Narbaitz RM, Matsuura T, Tabe S, Jasim SY, Khulbe KC (2012) Comparison of cellulose acetate (CA) membrane and novel CA membranes containing surface modifying macromolecules to remove pharmaceutical and personal care product micropollutants from drinking water. J Membr Sci 409–410:346–354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Reis-Santos P, Pais M, Duarte B, Caçador I, Freitas A, Vila Pouca AS, Barbosa J, Leston S, Rosa J, Ramos F, Cabral HN, Gillanders BM, Fonseca VF (2018) Screening of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters: a baseline assessment for the Tejo estuary. Mar Pollut Bull. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Roberts J, Kumar A, Du J, Hepplewhite C, Ellis DJ, Christy AG, Beavis SG (2016) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Australia’s largest inland sewage treatment plant, and its contribution to a major Australian river during high and low flow. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sacher F, Lange FT, Brauch HJ, Blankenhorn I (2001) Pharmaceuticals in groundwaters: analytical methods and results of a monitoring program in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. J Chromatogr A. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schaep J, Vandecasteele C (2001) Evaluating the charge of nanofiltration membranes. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schäfer AI, Nghiem LD, Meier A, Neale PA (2010) Impact of organic matrix compounds on the retention of steroid hormone estrone by a “loose” nanofiltration membrane. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schaider LA, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM, Dunagan SC, Brody JG (2014) Pharmaceuticals, perfluorosurfactants, and other organic wastewater compounds in public drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schlüsener MP, Bester K (2006) Persistence of antibiotics such as macrolides, tiamulin and salinomycin in soil. Environ Pollut. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shanmuganathan S, Johir MAH, Nguyen TV, Kandasamy J, Vigneswaran S (2015) Experimental evaluation of microfiltration-granular activated carbon (MF-GAC)/nano filter hybrid system in high quality water reuse. J Membr Sci 476:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sharma A, Ahmad J, Flora SJS (2018) Application of advanced oxidation processes and toxicity assessment of transformation products. Environ Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sharma BM, Bečanová J, Scheringer M, Sharma A, Bharat GK, Whitehead PG, Klánová J, Nizzetto L (2019) Health and ecological risk assessment of emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) in surface and groundwater (drinking water) in the Ganges River Basin, India. Sci Total Environ 646:1459–1467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sheng C, Nnanna AGA, Liu Y, Vargo JD (2016) Removal of Trace Pharmaceuticals from Water using coagulation and powdered activated carbon as pretreatment to ultrafiltration membrane system. Sci Total Environ 550:1075–1083. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shrivastava A, Rosenberg S, Peery M (2015) Energy efficiency breakdown of reverse osmosis and its implications on future innovation roadmap for desalination. Desalination 368:181–192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Snyder SA, Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Sedlak DL (2003) Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: implications for the water industry. Environ Eng Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Spongberg AL, Witter JD, Acuña J, Vargas J, Murillo M, Umaña G, Gómez E, Perez G (2011) Reconnaissance of selected PPCP compounds in Costa Rican surface waters. Water Res 45:6709–6717. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stamatis NK, Konstantinou IK (2013) Occurrence and removal of emerging pharmaceutical, personal care compounds and caffeine tracer in municipal sewage treatment plant in Western Greece. J Environ Sci Heal – Part B Pestic Food Contam Agric Wastes. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stuart M, Lapworth D, Crane E, Hart A (2012) Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Sci Total Environ 416:1–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Subedi B, Balakrishna K, Sinha RK, Yamashita N, Balasubramanian VG, Kannan K (2015) Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including psychoactive and illicit drugs and artificial sweeteners, in five sewage treatment plants in India. J Environ Chem Eng 3:2882–2891. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sui Q, Cao X, Lu S, Zhao W, Qiu Z, Yu G (2015) Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: a review. Emerg Contam 1:14–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tang J, Shi T, Wu X, Cao H, Li X, Hua R, Tang F, Yue Y (2015) The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in Lake Chaohu, China: seasonal variation, potential source and risk assessment. Chemosphere. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tappin AD, Loughnane JP, McCarthy AJ, Fitzsimons MF (2016) Unexpected removal of the most neutral cationic pharmaceutical in river waters. Environ Chem Lett 14:455–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tarpani RRZ, Azapagic A (2018) A methodology for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment plants and in freshwaters. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Terzić S, Senta I, Ahel M, Gros M, Petrović M, Barcelo D, Müller J, Knepper T, Martí I, Ventura F, Jovančić P, Jabučar D (2008) Occurrence and fate of emerging wastewater contaminants in Western Balkan Region. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tixier C, Singer HP, Oellers S, Müller SR (2003) Occurrence and fate of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in surface waters. Environ Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tran N, Drogui P, Brar SK (2015) Sonochemical techniques to degrade pharmaceutical organic pollutants. Environ Chem Lett 13:251–268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Tsui MMP, Leung HW, Lam PKS, Murphy MB (2014) Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tsuru T, Izumi S, Yoshioka T, Asaeda M (2000) Temperature effect on transport performance by inorganic nanofiltration membranes. AICHE J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Urtiaga AM, Pérez G, Ibáñez R, Ortiz I (2013) Removal of pharmaceuticals from a WWTP secondary effluent by ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis followed by electrochemical oxidation of the RO concentrate. Desalination 331:26–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Verliefde ARD, Cornelissen ER, Heijman SGJ, Verberk JQJC, Amy GL, Van Der Bruggen B, Van Dijk JC (2008) The role of electrostatic interactions on the rejection of organic solutes in aqueous solutions with nanofiltration. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vita NA, Brohem CA, Canavez ADPM, Oliveira CFS, Kruger O, Lorencini M, Carvalho CM (2018) Parameters for assessing the aquatic environmental impact of cosmetic products. Toxicol Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vona A, di Martino F, Garcia-Ivars J, Picó Y, Mendoza-Roca JA, Iborra-Clar MI (2015) Comparison of different removal techniques for selected pharmaceuticals. J Water Process Eng 5:48–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vymazal J, Březinová T, Koželuh M (2015) Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wang D, Sui Q, Lu SG, Zhao WT, Qiu ZF, Miao ZW, Yu G (2014) Occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant employing anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic and UV processes in Shanghai, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:4276–4285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wang Z, Zhang XH, Huang Y, Wang H (2015) Comprehensive evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in typical highly urbanized regions across China. Environ Pollut. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wang C, Qian Y, Zhang X, Chen F, Zhang Q, Li Z, Zhao M (2016) A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels. Environ Pollut 211:252–258. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wegst-Uhrich SR, Navarro DAG, Zimmerman L, Aga DS (2014) Assessing antibiotic sorption in soil: a literature review and new case studies on sulfonamides and macrolides. Chem Cent J.
  148. Wei X, Shi Y, Fei Y, Chen J, Lv B, Chen Y, Zheng H, Shen J, Zhu L (2016) Removal of trace phthalate esters from water by thin-film composite nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes. Chem Eng J 292:382–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wei X, Bao X, Wu J, Li C, Shi Y, Chen J, Lv B, Zhu B (2018) Typical pharmaceutical molecule removal behavior from water by positively and negatively charged composite hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes. RSC Adv 8:10396–10408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wenten IG, Khoiruddin (2016) Reverse osmosis applications: prospect and challenges. Desalination 391:112–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wray HE, Andrews RC, Bérubé PR (2014) Surface shear stress and retention of emerging contaminants during ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wu C, Huang X, Witter JD, Spongberg AL, Wang K, Wang D, Liu J (2014) Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and associated environmental risks in the central and lower Yangtze river, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:19–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wu C, Liu S, Wang Z, Zhang J, Wang X, Lu X, Jia Y, Hung WS, Lee KR (2016) Nanofiltration membranes with dually charged composite layer exhibiting super-high multivalent-salt rejection. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Xing J, Wang H, Cheng X, Tang X, Luo X, Wang J, Wang T, Li G, Liang H (2018) Application of low-dosage UV/chlorine pre-oxidation for mitigating ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling in natural surface water treatment. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Xu R, Zhang P, Wang Q, Wang X, Yu K, Xue T, Wen X (2019) Influences of multi influent matrices on the retention of PPCPs by nanofiltration membranes. Sep Purif Technol 212:299–306. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Yang Y, Ok YS, Kim KH, Kwon EE, Tsang YF (2017) Occurrences and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water and water/sewage treatment plants: a review. Sci Total Environ 596–597:303–320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Yang M, Liu S, Hu L, Zhan J, Lei P, Wu M (2018a) Effects of the antidepressant, mianserin, on early development of fish embryos at low environmentally relevant concentrations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 150:144–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Yang Y, Li C, Hou L an (2018b) Impact of dead cells on biofouling and pharmaceutically active compounds retention by NF/RO membranes. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Yangali-Quintanilla V, Maeng SK, Fujioka T, Kennedy M, Li Z, Amy G (2011) Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse. Desalin Water Treat 34:50–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yao M, Yan D, Kabat P, Huang H, Hutjes RWA, Werners SE (2016) Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas. Sustain Cities Soc. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Yao L, Wang Y, Tong L, Deng Y, Li Y, Gan Y, Guo W, Dong C, Duan Y, Zhao K (2017) Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in surface water and groundwater from different depths of aquifers: a case study at Jianghan Plain, central China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 135:236–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Yao L, Zhao JL, Liu YS, Zhang QQ, Jiang YX, Liu S, Liu WR, Yang YY, Ying GG (2018) Personal care products in wild fish in two main Chinese rivers: bioaccumulation potential and human health risks. Sci Total Environ 621:1093–1102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ye W, Bernstein NJ, Lin J, Jordens J, Zhao S, Tang CY, Van der Bruggen B (2018) Theoretical and experimental study of organic fouling of loose nanofiltration membrane. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Snyder SA, Wert EC (2006) Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. J Membr Sci 270:88–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Snyder SA, Wert EC, Yoon J (2007) Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membranes. Desalination 202:16–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yu H, Cao W (2016) Assessment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou by concentration monitoring and bio-effects monitoring process. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 43:209–215. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Yu Y, Wu L, Chang AC (2013) Seasonal variation of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants. Sci Total Environ. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Yuan Y, Kilduff JE (2018) Mass transport modeling of natural organic matter (NOM) and salt during Nanofiltration of inorganic colloid-NOM mixtures. Desalination. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yuan S, Li J, Zhu J, Volodine A, Li J, Zhang G, Van Puyvelde P, Van der Bruggen B (2018) Hydrophilic nanofiltration membranes with reduced humic acid fouling fabricated from copolymers designed by introducing carboxyl groups in the pendant benzene ring. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Zepon Tarpani RR, Azapagic A (2018) Life cycle environmental impacts of advanced wastewater treatment techniques for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). J Environ Manag 215:258–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zhang Y, Fu Q (2018) Algal fouling of microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes and control strategies: a review. Sep Purif Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang Q, Ji C, Yan L, Lu M, Lu C, Zhao M (2016) The identification of the metabolites of chlorothalonil in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their embryo toxicity and endocrine effects at environmentally relevant levels. Environ Pollut 218:8–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Du J, Zhao M (2017) Environmentally relevant levels of Λ-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin cause developmental toxicity and disrupt endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. Chemosphere 185:1173–1180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhao K, Jia J (2012) Dielectric analysis of multi-layer structure of nanofiltration membrane in electrolyte solutions: ion penetrability, selectivity, and influence of pH. J Colloid Interface Sci 386:16–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhao Y ying, Wang X mao, Yang, H wei, Xie Y feng F (2018) Effects of organic fouling and cleaning on the retention of pharmaceutically active compounds by ceramic nanofiltration membranes. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhou C, Shi Y, Sun C, Yu S, Liu M, Gao C (2014) Thin-film composite membranes formed by interfacial polymerization with natural material sericin and trimesoyl chloride for nanofiltration. J Membr Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zuccato E, Castiglioni S, Bagnati R, Chiabrando C, Grassi P, Fanelli R (2008) Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Water Res. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EnvironmentZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang ProvinceHangzhouChina
  3. 3.College of Chemical EngineeringZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations