Evaluation of SRAM PUF Characteristics and Generation of Stable Bits for IoT Security

  • Pyi Phyo AungEmail author
  • Koichiro Mashiko
  • Nordinah Binti Ismail
  • Ooi Chia Yee
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1073)


Better security is essential for IoT devices these days. Device authentication of IoT devices can be done by using Static Random-Access Memory Physical Unclonable Functions (SRAM PUF). However, SRAM PUF has poor stability and relatively high error rate. Temporal Majority Voting (TMV) and other Error Correction Codes (ECCs) has been used to improve SRAM PUF performance. But they require a lot of processing time and hardware resources. Most of the microcontrollers used in IoT devices do not have that. Still, those methods cannot produce sufficiently stable bits of SRAM PUF. The data remanence nature of SRAM cells can be utilized to generate much more stable SRAM PUF with low error rates. In this paper, we made use of both TMV and data remanence to obtain SRAM PUF characteristics of microcontrollers used in IoT devices. The characteristics of SRAM PUF such as biasness, uniqueness and stability have been analyzed and investigated for better understanding of SRAM PUF on different chips. Moreover, by using the data remanence method, we managed to obtain 128 bits of SRAM PUF from 512 bits of initial SRAM values with the error rate of 3.77 × 10−8 and the stability of 99.983% which can be implemented on simple microcontrollers.


Physical Unclonable Function SRAM PUF Security 


  1. 1.
    Cilardo, A., Barbareschi, M., Mazzeo, A.: Secure distribution infrastructure for hardware digital contents. IET Comput. Digit. Tech. 8(6), 300–310 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kemp, S.: Digital in 2017: Global Overview, 24 January 2017. Accessed 20 Oct 2018
  3. 3.
    Aman, M.N., Chua, K.C., Sikdar, B.: Position paper: physical unclonable functions for IoT security. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Workshop on IoT Privacy, Trust, and Security, Xi’an, China, pp. 10–13. ACM (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Noh, J., et al.: Secure key exchange scheme for WPA/WPA2-PSK using public key cryptography. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics-Asia (ICCE-Asia) (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chatterjee, U., Chakraborty, R.S., Mukhopadhyay, D.: A PUF-based secure communication protocol for IoT. ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 16(3), 1–25 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maes, R.: Physically unclonable functions: concept and constructions. In: Maes, R. (ed.) Physically Unclonable Functions: Constructions, Properties and Applications, pp. 11–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sklavos, N.: Securing communication devices via physical unclonable functions (PUFs). In: Reimer, H., Pohlmann, N., Schneider, W. (eds.) ISSE 2013 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2013 Conference, pp. 253–261. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holcomb, D.E., Burleson, W.P., Fu, K.: Initial SRAM state as a fingerprint and source of true random numbers for RFID tags (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Böhm, C., Hofer, M., Pribyl, W.: A microcontroller SRAM-PUF. In: 2011 5th International Conference on Network and System Security (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vijayakumar, A., Patil, V., Kundu, S.: On improving reliability of SRAM-based physically unclonable functions. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 7(1) (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lipps, C., et al.: Proof of concept for IoT device authentication based on SRAM PUFs using ATMEGA 2560-MCU. In: 2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS) (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu, X., et al.: Reliable physical unclonable functions using data retention voltage of SRAM cells. IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 34(6), 903–914 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Das, J., et al.: MRAM PUF: a novel geometry based magnetic PUF with integrated CMOS. IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(3), 436–443 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu, M., Zhou, C., Tang, Q., Parhi, K.K., Kim, C.H.: A data remanence-based approach to generate 100% stable keys from an SRAM physical unclonable function. In: 2017IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Taipei, pp. 1–6 (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deutschmann, M., Iriskic, L., Lattacher, S.L., Münzer, M., Tomshchuk, O.: A PUF based hardware authentication scheme for embedded devices, pp. 1–18. Technikon (2017).
  16. 16.
    Deutschmann, M., Iriskic, L., Lattacher, S.L., Münzer, M., Stornig, F., Tomashchuk, O.: Research on the applications of physically unclonable functions within the Internet of Things. Technikon, pp. 1–9 (2018).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pyi Phyo Aung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Koichiro Mashiko
    • 1
  • Nordinah Binti Ismail
    • 1
  • Ooi Chia Yee
    • 1
  1. 1.Malaysia-Japan International Institute of TechnologyUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations