Advertisement

Stimulants: Caffeine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, and Other Stimulants

  • Jeffrey J. DeVidoEmail author
Chapter
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

The term stimulant refers to a diverse array of natural and synthetic compounds whose use results in varying degrees of euphoria, as well as heightened attention, wakefulness, and libido, in addition to sympathomimetic effects. Certain stimulants are FDA approved for various medical and psychiatric conditions and are therefore available via prescription. While some stimulants have relatively benign physiological profiles, such as caffeine, use of other stimulants such as amphetamines or cocaine can result in significant negative physiological and/or psychiatric consequences such as stroke or myocardial infarction, psychosis, and movement disorders, and also carry a high risk for physiological dependence and the development of use disorders (addiction). As a result of their non-medical and abuse potential, a robust illicit stimulant trade remains active worldwide. There are no pharmacotherapies that are FDA approved for the treatment of any stimulant use disorder, but several behavioral therapies, such as contingency management, have demonstrated promise. This chapter reviews the mechanisms of action of various stimulants, diagnostic features of different stimulant intoxication/withdrawal/use disorders, and evidence-based treatment modalities for these diagnostic entities. The stimulants of particular focus in this chapter will be caffeine, cocaine, as well as amphetamine and amphetamine-type (AAT) stimulants.

Keywords

Stimulants Caffeine Cocaine Stimulant use disorder Cocaine use disorder Methamphetamine 

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anthony JC, Warner LA, Kessler RD. Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994;2:244–68.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woody GE, Cttler LB, Cacciola J. Severity of dependence: data from the DSM-IV field trials. Addiction. 1993;88(1):1573–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Compton WM, Volkow ND. Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2006;83(supplement 1):S4–S7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fischer TW, Hipler UC, Elsner P. Effect of caffeine and testosterone on the proliferation of human hair follicles in vitro. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46(1):27–35. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2007.03119.x.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2007.03119.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mitchell DC, Knight CA, Hockenberry J, Teplansky R, Hartman TJ. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014;63:136–42. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691513007175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saab S, Mallam D, Cox GA, Tong MJ. Impact of coffee on liver diseases: a systematic review. Liver Int. 2014;34(4):495–504. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/liv.12304.  https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grosso G, Micek A, Castellano S, Pajak A, Galvano F. Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60(1):223–34. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mnfr.201500620.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201500620.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carman AJ, Dacks PA, Lane RF, Shineman DW, Fillit HM. Current evidence for the use of coffee and caffeine to prevent age-related cognitive decline and alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(4):383. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676319.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-014-0021-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Derry CJ, Derry S, Moore RA. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD009281. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25502052.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009281.pub3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, et al. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(20):2112–21. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/354/20/2112.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa054065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    James JE. Critical review of dietary caffeine and blood pressure: a relationship that should be taken more seriously. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(1):63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Evatt DP, Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A brief manualized treatment for problematic caffeine use: a randomized control trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2016;84(2):113–21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26501499.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Strain EC, Mumford GK, Silverman K, Griffiths RR. Caffeine dependence syndrome: evidence from case histories and experimental evaluations. JAMA. 1994;272(13):1043–8.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520130081037.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oliveto AH, McCance-Katz E, Singha A, Hameedi F, Kosten TR. Effects of d-amphetamine and caffeine in humans under a cocaine discrimination procedure. Behav Pharmacol. 1998;9(3):207. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9832935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;39(2):127–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hagg S, Spigset O, Mjorndal T, Dahlqvist R. Effect of caffeine on clozapine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;49(1):59–63. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/bjcp/2000/00000049/00000001/art00008.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2000.00111.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greenwood DC, Thatcher NJ, Ye J, et al. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29(10):725–34. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43775025.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-014-9944-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savitz DA, Chan RL, Herring AH, Howards PP, Hartmann KE. Caffeine and miscarriage risk. Epidemiology. 2008;19(1):55–62. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20486494.  https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e31815c09b9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weng X, Odouli R, Li D-K. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198(3):279.e8. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S000293780702025X.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.10.803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caffeine intake during pregnancy. Americanpregnancy.org Web site. http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-health/caffeine-intake-during-pregnancy/. Updated 2018. Accessed 9 February, 2019.
  22. 22.
    ACOG CommitteeOpinion no. 462: moderate caffeine consumption during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(2 Pt 1):467. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664420Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aldridge A, Bailey J, Neims AH. The disposition of caffeine during and after pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1981;5(4):310. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7302604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Committee on Drugs. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):776–89. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/108/3/776.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.108.3.776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brust JC. Neurologic complications of illicit drug abuse. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014;20(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):642–56. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&NEWS=n&CSC=Y&PAGE=fulltext&D=ovft&AN=00132979-201406000-00016.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.CON.0000450971.99322.cd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sordo L, Indave BI, Barrio G, Degenhardt L, de la Fuente L, Bravo MJ. Cocaine use and risk of stroke: a systematic review. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;142:1–13. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S0376871614009685.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Glauser J, Queen JR. An overview of non-cardiac cocaine toxicity. J Emerg Med. 2007;32(2):181–6. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S073646790600655X.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2006.05.044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brecht M, Herbeck DM. Methamphetamine use and violent behavior. J Drug Issues. 2013;43(4):468–82. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022042613491098.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022042613491098.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McKetin R, Lubman DI, Najman JM, Dawe S, Butterworth P, Baker AL. Does methamphetamine use increase violent behaviour? Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. Addiction. 2014;109(5):798–806. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.12474.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12474.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glasner-Edwards S, Mooney L. Methamphetamine psychosis: epidemiology and management. CNS Drugs. 2014;28(12):1115–26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40263-014-0209-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Ampollini R, et al. Experimentally induced aggressive behavior in subjects with 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (“ecstasy”) use history: psychobiological correlates. J Subst Abus. 2001;13(4):471–91. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11775077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tyner, Elizabeth A.|Fremouw, William J. The relation of methamphetamine use and violence: a critical review. Aggress Violent Behav 2008;13(4):285–297. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S1359178908000189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Srisurapanont M, Kittiratanapaiboon P, Jarusuraisin N. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;4:CD003026. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11687172Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hjorthøj CR, Hjorthøj AR, Nordentoft M. Validity of timeline follow-back for self-reported use of cannabis and other illicit substances — systematic review and meta-analysis. Addict Behav. 2011;37(3):225–33. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S030646031100387X.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.11.025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McNeely J, Wu L, Subramaniam G, et al. Performance of the tobacco, alcohol, prescription medication, and other substance use (TAPS) tool for substance use screening in primary care patients. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(10):690. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595276.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M16-0317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith PC, Schmidt SM, Allensworth-Davies D, Saitz R. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(13):1155.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2010.140.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Skinner HA. The drug abuse screening test. Addict Behav. 1982;7(4):363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tiet QQ, Leyva YE, Moos RH, Frayne SM, Osterberg L, Smith B. Screen of drug use: diagnostic accuracy of a new brief tool for primary care. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(8):1371–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chasnoff IJ, Wells AM, McGourty RF, Bailey LK. Validation of the 4Ps plus screen for substance use in pregnancy validation of the 4Ps plus. J Perinatol. 2007;27(12):744–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17805340.  https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jenkins AJ, Cone EJ. Pharmacokinetics: drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. In: Karch SB, editor. Drug abuse handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pennings EJM, Leccese AP, Wolff FA. Effects of concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine. Addiction. 2002;97(7):773–83. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/add/2002/00000097/00000007/art00002.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00158.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Verstraete AG. Detection times of drugs of abuse in blood, urine, and oral fluid. Ther Drug Monit. 2004;26(2):200–5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15228165.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00007691-200404000-00020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Center for behavioral health statistics and quality. 2017 national survey on drug use and health: detailed tables. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2018.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Results from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings, NSDUH series H-48, HHS publication no. (SMA) 14-4863. Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2014.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rogers RD, Robbins TW. Investigating the neurocognitive deficits associated with chronic drug misuse. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11(2):250–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marzuk PM, Tardiff K, Leon AC, Stajic M, Morgan EB, Mann JJ. Prevalence of cocaine use among residents of New York city who committed suicide during a one-year period. Am J Psychiatr. 1992;149(3):371–5.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.149.3.371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Friedman H, Pross S, Klein TW. Addictive drugs and their relationship with infectious diseases. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;47(3):330–42. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00097.x.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2006.00097.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    van Harten PN, van Trier JC, Horwitz EH, Matroos GE, Hoek HW. Cocaine as a risk factor for neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(3):128–30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9541156.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v59n0307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tseng W, Sutter M, Albertson T. Stimulants and the lung. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol. 2014;46(1):82–100. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23760760.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-013-8376-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kuczkowski KM. The effects of drug abuse on pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;19(6):578–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Penberthy JK, Ait-Daoud N, Vaughan M, Fanning T. Review of treatment for cocaine dependence. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2010;3(1):49. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Otto MW, Leyro TM, Powers MB, Dutra L, Basden SL, Stathopoulou G. A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatr. 2008;165(2):179–87.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.06111851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stotts AL, Schmitz JM, Rhoades HM, Grabowski J. Motivational interviewing with cocaine-dependent patients. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001;69(5):858–62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11680565.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.69.5.858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    McKee SA, Carroll KM, Sinha R, Robinson JE, Nich C, Cavallo D, O’Malley S. Enhancing brief cognitive-behavioral therapy with motivational enhancement techniques in cocaine users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;91(1):97–101. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S0376871607001949.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.05.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hatch-Maillette M, Wells EA, Doyle SR, Brigham GS, Daley D, DiCenzo J, Donovan D, Garrett S, Horigian VE, Jenkins L, Killeen T, Owens M, Perl HI. Predictors of 12-step attendance and participation for individuals with stimulant use disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2016;68:74–82. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S0740547216300125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.06.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hedden SL, Kennet J, Lipari R, Medley G, Tice P. Center for behavioral health statistics and quality. Behavioral health trends in the United States: results from the 2014 national survey on drug use and health. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2015.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ. Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(6):479–96. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0269881113482532.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881113482532.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kirkpatrick MG, Gunderson EW, Johanson C, Levin FR, Foltin RW, Hart CL. Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans. Addiction. 2012;107(4):783–91. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03706.x.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03706.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Beasley DMG. The clinical toxicology of metamfetamine. Clin Toxicol. 2010;48(7):675–94. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20849327.  https://doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2010.516752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baselt RC. Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man. 7th ed. Chemical Toxicology Institute: Foster City; 2004.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sitte HH, Freissmuth M. Amphetamines, new psychoactive drugs and the monoamine transporter cycle. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2014;36(1):41–50. https://www.clinicalkey.es/playcontent/1-s2.0-S0165614714002120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2014.11.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sekine Y, Ouchi Y, Takei N, et al. Brain serotonin transporter density and aggression in abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(1):90–100.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.1.90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Baumann MH, Ayestas J, Mario A, Partilla JS, et al. The designer methcathinone analogs, mephedrone and methylone, are substrates for monoamine transporters in brain tissue. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37(5):1192–203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22169943.  https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2011.304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Papaseit E, Moltó J, Muga R, Torrens M, de la Torre R, Farré M. Clinical pharmacology of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2017;32:313–31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28012094.  https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2016_61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cohen J, Hernández-Díaz S, Bateman B, et al. Placental complications associated with psychostimulant use in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2017;130(6):1192–201. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29112657.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002362.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Committee opinion no. 479: methamphetamine abuse in women of reproductive age. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2011;117(3):751–5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343793.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e318214784e.
  67. 67.
    Dinger J, Hinner P, Reichert J, Rüdiger M. Methamphetamine consumption during pregnancy – effects on child health. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2017;50(3):107–13.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-122711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ornoy A. Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during pregnancy and lactation. Pharm Res. 2018;35(3):1–11. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1994705020.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-017-2323-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gorelick DA. Pharmacological treatment of stimulant use disorders. In: Miller S, Fiellin D, Rosenthal R, Saitz R, editors. The ASAM principles of addiction medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer; 2019. p. 847–62.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Colfax GN, Santos G, Das M, et al. Mirtazapine to reduce methamphetamine use: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(11):1168–75.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Meredith CW, Jaffe C, Yanasak E, Cherrier M, Saxon AJ. An open-label pilot study of risperidone in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2007;39(2):167–72. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2007.10399875.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2007.10399875.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Beck O, Hammarberg A, Franck J, Jayaram-Lindström N. Naltrexone for the treatment of amphetamine dependence: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatr. 2008;165(11):1442–8.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vocci F, Montoya I. Psychological treatments for stimulant misuse, comparing and contrasting those for amphetamine dependence and those for cocaine dependence. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22(3):263–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19307968.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832a3b44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rawson RA, Marinelli-Casey P, Anglin MD, et al. A multi-site comparison of psychosocial approaches for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Addiction. 2004;99(6):708–73. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/add/2004/00000099/00000006/art00007.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00707.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioral Health and Recovery Services; Marin County California Department of Health and Human ServicesSan RafaelUSA
  2. 2.Partnership HealthPlan of CaliforniaFairfieldUSA
  3. 3.University of California, San Francisco, Department of PsychiatrySan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations