Exercise and Training Effects on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Individuals with Obesity

  • Hassane ZouhalEmail author
  • Ayoub Saeidi
  • Sarkawt Kolahdouzi
  • Sajad Ahmadizad
  • Anthony C. Hackney
  • Abderraouf Ben Abderrahmane
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE)


The prevalence of obesity in the world is increasing rapidly, and the associated morbidity and mortality require crucial need for non-pharmacological and therapeutic intervention to reduce alteration of appetite, food intake, and gut hormones. The effectiveness of this non-pharmacological intervention for weight management is due to probable alteration in gut hormones which regulating appetite and food intake. There are several types of hormones that control an individual’s appetite. In this study, researchers focused on major hormones of appetite regulation, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, and oxyntomodulin (OXN).

Obese individuals were believed to have lower energy expenditure (EE) rates compared to normal and overweight ones. As such it is important to increase EE through exercise. The decrease in energy expenditure is partly due to a reduction in lean mass, the component of the body responsible for most of the energy expenditure of rest, which is found during diet. In addition, adaptive responses to weight loss are associated with many hormonal changes, including a decrease in leptin, insulin, intestinal peptide PYY, and sympathetic nervous system activity, with an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin and circulating levels of ghrelin. Studies have shown that aerobic or resistance training resulted in slightly higher or no changes in circulating levels of these hormones, while other studies in normal-weight or overweight individuals found an interesting result about more intense physical exercise. They suggested that this type of exercise could affect ghrelin by decreasing the secretion of this peptide and stimulating that of another gastrointestinal peptide antagonist, the PYY. Intense physical exercise decreases energy intake in normal-weight and overweight individual. Further studies are required to confirm those results in obese individual.


Acylated ghrelin Ghrelin Glucagon-like peptide 1 Appetite Leptin Oxyntomodulin 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassane Zouhal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ayoub Saeidi
    • 2
  • Sarkawt Kolahdouzi
    • 3
  • Sajad Ahmadizad
    • 2
  • Anthony C. Hackney
    • 4
  • Abderraouf Ben Abderrahmane
    • 5
  1. 1.Univ Rennes, M2S (Laboratoire Mouvement, Sport, Santé)RennesFrance
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences in Sport and Health, Faculty of Sports Sciences and HealthShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Exercise Biochemistry Division, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of MazandaranBabolsarIran
  4. 4.Department of Exercise & Sport Science, Department of NutritionUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Higher Institute of Sport Sciences and Physical Education of Ksar Saïd, Department of Biological SciencesArianaTunisia

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