Measuring Individual Cell Cyclic di-GMP: Identifying Population Diversity and Cyclic di-GMP Heterogeneity

  • Samuel I. MillerEmail author
  • Erik Petersen


Cyclic di-GMP is a second messenger used by bacteria to regulate motility, extracellular polysaccharide production, and the cell cycle. Recent advances in the measurement of real time cyclic di-GMP levels in single cells have uncovered significant dynamic heterogeneity of second messenger concentrations within bacterial populations. This heterogeneity results in a wide range of phenotypic outcomes within a single population, providing the potential for population survival and adaptability in response to rapidly changing environments. In this chapter, we discuss some of the measurement technologies available for single-cell measurement of cyclic di-GMP concentrations, the resulting discovery of heterogeneous cyclic di-GMP populations, the mechanisms bacteria use to generate this heterogeneity, and the biochemical and functional consequences of heterogeneity on cyclic di-GMP effector binding and the bacterial population.


Cyclic di-GMP Heterogeneity Single cell Microscopy Biosensor Effector 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Genome SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health SciencesEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA

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