Osmoregulation via Cyclic di-AMP Signaling

  • Mark S. TurnerEmail author
  • Thu Ngoc Minh Vu
  • Esteban Marcellin
  • Zhao-Xun Liang
  • Huong Thi Pham


Nucleotide second messengers allow cells to transduce external signals into cellular responses by modulating the activity of a variety of protein and riboswitch receptors. Cyclic di-AMP has been found to impact on a wide array of cellular processes including resistance to acid, heat, antibiotics, osmolarity changes and connected to central metabolism, peptidoglycan homeostasis, virulence, biofilm formation, immunomodulation, sporulation, DNA repair, and growth. Unusual for a second messenger however, it is essential for growth under normal culture conditions but toxic when present in high levels for several bacteria. Interestingly high osmolarity conditions can stabilize cells devoid of cyclic di-AMP but inhibit the growth of cells with high cyclic di-AMP. Screens have identified a number of cyclic di-AMP binding receptors, and genetic suppressor analyses have uncovered mutations that restore normal growth in high or low cyclic di-AMP mutant strains. The most cyclic di-AMP-binding receptors characterized thus far in various bacteria are involved in potassium or compatible solute uptake. Taken together, results from several bacteria suggest that osmoregulation is a key conserved function of this nucleotide messenger, which will be the focus of this chapter.


Cyclic di-AMP Stress signaling Receptor Riboswitch Osmolyte Osmoregulation Osmotic stress Potassium Glycine betaine Carnitine Cell wall peptidoglycan 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark S. Turner
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Thu Ngoc Minh Vu
    • 1
  • Esteban Marcellin
    • 3
  • Zhao-Xun Liang
    • 4
  • Huong Thi Pham
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Institute for Bioengineering and NanotechnologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.The University of DanangUniversity of Science and TechnologyDa NangVietnam

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