Materials and Technologies for the Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Systems

  • Fayyaz Salih Hussain
  • Najma Memon
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 40)


Chromium (Cr) enters into the environment through activities related to mining, various industrial and certain geological processes. Globally more than 170,000 tons of chromium - containing wastewater is discharged annually. Chromium is toxic for all living organisms, therefore, its removal is crucial to save plants and aquatic life. Due to its toxic and carcinogenic nature, efficient removal technologies and materials are continuously investigated and widely documented. This chapter focuses on recent technologies and materials employed to remove chromium from water bodies. Techniques such as membrane filtration, electrochemical, and phytoremediation have emerged over the years. Sorptive removal of chromium is another approach that is investigated in detail for the development of efficient sorbent materials. Many natural and synthetic materials, such as carbon nanotubes, composite of nanomaterials, zeolites, biochar and others are reported as sorbents. Electrochemical precipitation has superseded conventional coagulation technology in terms of efficiency. However, it still requires investigation for industrial scale utilization and also, like all precipitation techniques, it produces chromium-containing sludge. On the other hand, functionalized materials with high surface area are promising candidates as sorbents.


Chromium removal Wastewater treatment Removal techniques Adsorbents Membrane technology Electrocoagulation Polypyrrole Carbon nanotubes Biocarbon Activated carbon Bio sorbents 



Carbon Nanotubes




Poly (vinylidene fluoride)




Polyvinyl pyrrolidone


Electrochemical precipitation


Chemical oxygen demand


Total suspended solids


Single walled carbon nanotubes


Polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration


Multi walled carbon nanotubes


Brunauer, Emmett and Teller


poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)


Tataric acid


Green Macroalgae Cladophore


Activated carbon




Graphene oxide


Layered Double Hydroxides


Constructed rapid infiltration systems


Polyethylene glycol


Supported liquid membrane




Cetylpyridinium chloride


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate



Financial support from Pak-US Science and Technology Cooperation Program, Phase VI (Project No. 6/6/PAK-US/HEC/2015/06) is highly acknowledged.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fayyaz Salih Hussain
    • 1
  • Najma Memon
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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