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Materials and Technologies for the Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Systems

  • Fayyaz Salih Hussain
  • Najma Memon
Chapter
  • 13 Downloads
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 40)

Abstract

Chromium (Cr) enters into the environment through activities related to mining, various industrial and certain geological processes. Globally more than 170,000 tons of chromium - containing wastewater is discharged annually. Chromium is toxic for all living organisms, therefore, its removal is crucial to save plants and aquatic life. Due to its toxic and carcinogenic nature, efficient removal technologies and materials are continuously investigated and widely documented. This chapter focuses on recent technologies and materials employed to remove chromium from water bodies. Techniques such as membrane filtration, electrochemical, and phytoremediation have emerged over the years. Sorptive removal of chromium is another approach that is investigated in detail for the development of efficient sorbent materials. Many natural and synthetic materials, such as carbon nanotubes, composite of nanomaterials, zeolites, biochar and others are reported as sorbents. Electrochemical precipitation has superseded conventional coagulation technology in terms of efficiency. However, it still requires investigation for industrial scale utilization and also, like all precipitation techniques, it produces chromium-containing sludge. On the other hand, functionalized materials with high surface area are promising candidates as sorbents.

Keywords

Chromium removal Wastewater treatment Removal techniques Adsorbents Membrane technology Electrocoagulation Polypyrrole Carbon nanotubes Biocarbon Activated carbon Bio sorbents 

Acronyms

CNTs

Carbon Nanotubes

APTS

3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane

PVDF

Poly (vinylidene fluoride)

DMAc

Dimethylacetamide

PVP

Polyvinyl pyrrolidone

ECP

Electrochemical precipitation

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

TSS

Total suspended solids

SWCNT

Single walled carbon nanotubes

PEUF

Polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration

MWCNT

Multi walled carbon nanotubes

BET

Brunauer, Emmett and Teller

PDMAEMA

poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)

TA

Tataric acid

GAC

Green Macroalgae Cladophore

AC

Activated carbon

PPy

Polypyrrole

GO

Graphene oxide

LDHs

Layered Double Hydroxides

CRIS

Constructed rapid infiltration systems

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

SLM

Supported liquid membrane

NF

Nano-filtration

CPC

Cetylpyridinium chloride

NAD(P)H

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Notes

Acknowledgement

Financial support from Pak-US Science and Technology Cooperation Program, Phase VI (Project No. 6/6/PAK-US/HEC/2015/06) is highly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fayyaz Salih Hussain
    • 1
  • Najma Memon
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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