Advertisement

The Dynamic Interaction Between Engagement, Friendship, and Collaboration in Robot Children Triads

  • Yanghee KimEmail author
  • Michael Tscholl
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 1112)

Abstract

Grounded in child/robot interaction and inclusive education, this research has designed a small socio-technical community of a robot and two children where children play and learn equitably together while they help the robot learn. This designed community was implemented in a school media lab twice a week over three weeks, each session taking about 20 min. We ethnographically observed and video recorded children’s participation in the triadic interaction naturally. The phenomena of interest include friendship development, collaborative communication, and engagement with the community. Data collection is still ongoing, and analysis will occur over this summer. This paper presents the theoretical frameworks and data analytic scheme. We expect to report the findings at the ICQE conference in October.

Keywords

Child-robot interaction Collaboration Engagement Friendship 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by NSF IIS #1839194.

References

  1. 1.
    Breazeal, C.L.: Emotion and sociable humanoid robots. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 59(1–2), 119–155 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00018-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crompton, H., Gregory, K., Burke, D.: Humanoid robots supporting children’s learning in an early childhood setting. Br. J. Educ. Technol. Spec. Issue Digit. Devices Internet-Enabled Toys Digit. Games: Changing Nat. Young Children’s Learn. Ecol. Exp. Pedagogies 49(5), 911–927 (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim, Y., Smith, D.: Pedagogical and technological augmentation of mobile learning for young children. Interact. Learn. Environ. 25(1), 4–16 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shaffer, D.W., Ruiz, A.R.: Epistemic network analysis: a worked example of theory-based learning analytics. In: Lang, C., Siemens, G., Wise, A.F., Gasevic, D., (eds.) Handbook of Learning Analytics, pp. 175–187. Society for Learning Analytics Research (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Howes, C.: The earliest friendships. In: Bukowski, W.M., Newcomb, A.F., Hartup, W.W. (eds.) The Company They Keep: Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence, pp. 66–86. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bukowsky, W., Sippola, L.: Friendship and development: Putting the most human relationship in its place. New Dir. Child Adolesc. Dev. 109, 91–98 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pedersen, S., Vitaro, F., Barker, E.D., Borge, A.I.: The timing of middle-childhood peer rejection and friendship: linking early behavior to early-adolescent adjustment. Child Dev. 78, 1037–1051 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01051.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allport, G.W.: The Nature of Prejudice. Addison-Wesley, Cambridge (1954)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ellison, C.G., Powers, D.A.: The contact hypothesis and racial attitudes among Black Americans. Soc. Sci. Q. 75, 385–400 (1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jackman, M.R., Crane, M.: ‘‘Some of my best friends are Black…’’: interracial friendship and Whites’ racial attitudes. Public Opin. Q. 50, 459–486 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pettigrew, T.F.: Intergroup contact theory. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49, 65–85 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grütter, J., Gasser, L., Zuffianò, A., Meyer, B.: Promoting inclusion via cross-group friendship: the mediating role of change in trust and sympathy. Child Dev. 89(4), e414–e430 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feddes, A.R., Noack, P., Rutland, A.: Direct and extended friendship effects on minority and majority children’s interethnic attitudes: a longitudinal study. Child Dev. 80(2), 377–390 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kawabata, Y., Crick, N.R.: The role of cross-racial/ethnic friendships in social adjustment. Dev. Psychol. 44(4), 1177–1183 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papadopoulou, M.: The ‘space’ of friendship: young children’s understandings and expressions of friendship in a reception class. Early Child Dev. Care 186(10), 1544–1558 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2015.1111879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Logue, M.E.: Early childhood learning standards: tools for promoting social and academic success in kindergarten. Child. Sch. 29(1), 35–43 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arnold, D.H., Kupersmidt, J.B., Voegler-Lee, M.E., Marshall, N.A.: The association between preschool children’s social functioning and their emergent academic skills. Early Child. Res. Q. 27(3), 376–386 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Welsh, M., Parke, R.D., Widaman, K., O’Neil, R.: Linkages between children’s social and academic competence: a longitudinal analysis. J. Sch. Psychol. 39, 463–481 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., Schellinger, K.B.: The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 82(1), 405–423 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gudykunst, W.B. (ed.): Theorizing About Intercultural Communication, 10th edn. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fredricks, J.A., Blumenfeld, P.C., Paris, A.H.: School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Rev. Educ. Res. 74, 59–109 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Renninger, K.A.: Working with and cultivating interest, self-efficacy, and self-regulation. In: Preiss, D., Sternberg, R. (eds.) Innovations in Educational Psychology: Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Human Development, pp. 158–195. Springer, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brock, L.L., Rimm-Kaufman, S.E., Nathanson, L., Grimm, K.J.: The contributions of “hot” and “cool” executive function to children’s academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Child. Res. Q. 24, 337–349 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Järvelä, S., Renninger, K.A.: Interest, motivation, engagement. In: Saywer, K. (ed.) The Handbook of the Learning Sciences, 2nd edn, pp. 668–685. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marks, H.M.: Student engagement in instructional activity: patterns in the elementary, middle, and high school years. Am. Educ. Res. J. 37, 153–184 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McClelland, M., Morrison, F., Holmes, D.: Children at-risk for early academic problems: the role of learning-related social skills. Early Child. Res. Q. 15, 307–329 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blair, K.A., Denham, S.A., Kochanoff, A., Whipple, B.: Playing it cool: temperament, emotion regulation, and social behavior in preschoolers. J. Sch. Psychol. 42(6), 419–443 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paris, D.: Culturally sustaining pedagogy: a needed change in stance, terminology, and practice. Educ. Res. 41(3), 93–97 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kangas, M.: Creative and playful learning: learning through game co-creation and games in a playful learning environment. Think. Skills Creativity 5(1), 1–15 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fink, E., Begeer, S., Peterson, C., Slaughter, V., de Rosnay, M.: Friendlessness and theory of mind: a prospective longitudinal study. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 33(1), 1–17 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12060CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EducationNorthern Illinois UniversityDekalbUSA

Personalised recommendations