Biochemical Indicators and Biofertilizer Application for Diagnosis and Allevation Micronutrient Deficiency in Plant

  • Zeinab A. Salama
  • Magdi T. AbdelhamidEmail author


Deficiencies in micronutrients are well established causal factors for sub-optimal plant production. Therefore, the first option is to apply micronutrient-containing fertilizers, both chemical and organic, and application method should be based on soil nutrient management guidelines along with crop types. It is often misleading to identify nutrient constraints based on morphological symptoms or in combination with leaf/soil analysis, particularly with regard to remedying the nutritional problems of a standing crop. The objective of this chapter is to identify and diagnose common symptoms of plant nutrient deficiency and to understand how to use chemical indicators and bio fertilizer to identify and alleviate deficiencies of micronutrients. The possibilities of using biochemical markers and application of biofertilizers to diagnose and mitigate deficiencies in micronutrients are presented. Foliar analysis is a useful tool for detecting deficiencies of micronutrients before macroscopic symptoms occur in plants. This work will therefore focus on the other diagnostic tools used to evaluate micronutrient deficiencies that include soil analysis, plant-growth response (in annual plants), and visual symptom observation. More biochemical indicators recently have been used as early detectors of deficiencies in micronutrients i.e. for iron (Fe), include peroxidase and catalase, and zinc (Zn) include carbonic anhydrase, superoxide dismutase, protein electrophoresis, and isozymes. The roles of the necessary micronutrients for normal plant growth need to have a deep knowledge of the redox system mechanisms. The biochemical markers for the deficiency of micronutrients in diagnosis and the role and benefits of application of bio fertilizers are presented in detail and discussed in this chapter in full. One more aim of this chapter is to summarize the updating knowledge of biochemical markers and the role of biofertilizers that would play a key role in soil productivity and sustainability as well as protecting the environment as environmentally friendly and cost-effective inputs for farmers.


Micronutrient deficiency Biochemical markers Bio fertilizer Crop productivity 



The authors Dr. Zeinab Salama and Dr. Magdi Abdelhamid, would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Mohamed M. El-Fouly, Professor of Plant Nutrition, National Research Centre, Egypt, and their colleagues at Department of Plant Biochemistry, and Department of Botany, National Research Centre, Egypt for their valuable contribution in some phases of this study.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biochemistry DepartmentNational Research CentreDokki, GizaEgypt
  2. 2.Botany DepartmentNational Research CentreDokki, GizaEgypt

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