The Existence of Modified Environmental Kuznets Curve for Gender Inequality in the MENA Economies: Panel Data Model
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The usual Modified Environmental Kuznets Curve (MEKC) examines the environment–development relationship to reflect the impact of development on environment degradation. However, gender inequality recently appears to have serious impacts on climate mitigation and adaptation measures that require special consideration. After all, sustainable development cannot be fulfilled when the contribution of half the available human resources in the community is underestimated. To reflect the gender dimension, my research examines the existence of MEKC relationship between CO2 emissions per capita and female participation in 18 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economies for the period 1990–2015 using panel data estimation. Arguing on the existence of MEKC for gender–climate relationship in the MENA region, the empirical results show that the contribution of women is crucial to reverse the vulnerability of the MENA region to climate change. Thus, gender equality can be an effective factor in adaptation and mitigation measures. In this context, gender-responsive climate policy actions can be an efficient channel to allow sustainable development in the MENA region.
KeywordsSustainable development Gender Climate change adaptation
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