Parameter Optimization of Conceptual Tank Model for Groundwater Level Prediction

  • Soon Min Ng
  • Mohd Ashraf Mohamad IsmailEmail author
  • Ismail Abustan
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


Groundwater is regarded as one of the critical factors that can affect slope stability. Thus, groundwater levels may render useful information regarding the stability conditions of a slope. This preliminary study focused on developing a simple and quick analytical tool to evaluate the groundwater levels due to rainfall for slope stability assessment. To achieve this objective, a well-established rainfall-runoff model known as tank model was adopted in this study. An instrumented soil slope located in Malaysia was used as the case study to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Rainfall and groundwater levels data for a period of 8 months were used to calibrate the tank model unknown parameters representing runoff, infiltration, groundwater flow and head. The tank model was able to produce a satisfactory root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.185 for the computed groundwater levels compared to the observed groundwater levels. To produce a more accurate prediction, it is recommended to utilize the multi tank models that are position at crest, middle and toe of the slope. An accurate groundwater levels prediction will contribute to a reliable slope stability analysis which is valuable for the landslide early warning system applications.


Groundwater level prediction Tank model Slope stability Rainfall induced slope failure 



The authors would like to express their appreciation to Bridging Grant of Universiti Sains Malaysia (304 111/PAWAM/6316314) for the financial support to carry out this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soon Min Ng
    • 1
  • Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ismail Abustan
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and SocietyHeriot-Watt University MalaysiaPutrajayaMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains Malaysia (USM)Pulau PinangMalaysia

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