Characterization of Aerobic Granular Sludge (AGS) Formation During Start-Up Phase for Leachate Treatment

  • Nur Ain Hamiruddin
  • Nik Azimatolakma AwangEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 53)


The treatment of landfill leachate at Pulau Burung, Penang was investigated by applying aerobic granular sludge (AGS) during Start-up. The AGS was grown from a lab-scale with 10 L working volume of sequencing batch reactor (SBR). An achievement of AGS reactors in treatment and effluent quality shows the soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) have a small difference with total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) as an effluent quality parameter. In the biological process, a beginning rate of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was fluctuates, the granules reached maximum value on day 47 with 0.85 (mg O2/L/min) that shows the maximum value due to microbes are quickly growing and reproducing. The sludge retention time (SRT) was conducted in a range of 3–25 d, fluctuate between days 0 and 50 that indicates the SBR system was unstable and immature aerobic granules until day 50. The AGS morphology shows although the granules not matured yet during Start-up but the settling properties exhibited at 47 days indicating good settleability when obtained the sludge volume index (SVI30) between 50 and 80 mL/g. The efficiencies of ammonium removal is above 95% from days 30 to 50 with pH value of 7.9–8.2 but adversely when pH value more than 8.5.


Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) Leachate Start-up phase 



This research was sponsored under the Research University Individual Grant (1001/PAWAM/8014038) and Short Term Grant (304/PAWAM/6315151) provided by Universiti Sains Malaysia.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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