What Observations Do We Use?

  • Karim A. Malik
  • David R. Matravers
Part of the Astronomers' Universe book series (ASTRONOM)


In this chapter we will discuss what kind of observations informed our picture of the universe. To this end we will discuss briefly electromagnetic radiation, the various forms of “light”, and also briefly touch on “non-standard messengers” such as neutrinos and gravitational waves. We can then ask, how are these observations actually made? This will allow us to highlight some recent telescopes and experiments.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karim A. Malik
    • 1
  • David R. Matravers
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Physics and AstronomyQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Institute of Cosmology and GravitationUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

Personalised recommendations