Advertisement

Afro-Creole Nationalism and the Maintenance of the Digital Divide: The Case of Jamaica

  • Nova Gordon-BellEmail author
Chapter
  • 3 Downloads
Part of the Global Transformations in Media and Communication Research - A Palgrave and IAMCR Series book series (GTMCR)

Abstract

The English-speaking Caribbean is nearly saturated with access to mobile telephony, and internet access is dramatically increasing, but the promised economic and social transformations are not yet in evidence. Calls for regional policy makers to implement informed and appropriate processes of technology transfer, acquisition and deployment continue to challenge conventional perspectives that unproblematically link development to acquisition of technological innovations from the North. Without policies that take into account global economic and political systems and local arrangements that work in tandem with these systems, the transfer of digital technologies to developing societies exacerbates inequality and dispossession. This chapter concludes that decolonization of scholarship in the region is central to countering that which Sankatsing describes as envelopment.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. (2001). The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. American Economic Review, 91, 136–140.Google Scholar
  2. Acosta, AM., & Alleyne, D. (2006). The Policymaking process in Jamaica. Inter American Development Bank, 1–67.Google Scholar
  3. Ayres, C. E. (1961). Toward a Reasonable Society. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ayres, C. E. (1962). The Theory of Economic Progress. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  5. Beckles, H. (2014, July 16). Address Delivered by Professor Sir Hilary Beckles, Chairman of the Caricom Reparations Commission, the British House of Commons. Retrieved from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=9562.0
  6. Birdsall, N. (2001). Why Inequality Matters: Some Economic Issues. Ethics and International Affair, 15, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birdsall, N. (2006). Rising Inequality in the New Global Economy. International Journal of Developing Areas, 5, 1–9.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, D., & Sachs, J. (1998). Geography, Demography, and Economic Growth in Africa. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2, 207–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bogues, A. (2002a). Nationalism and Jamaican political thought. In K. Monteith and G. Richards (Eds.), Jamaica in Slavery and Freedom (pp. 363—387). Kingston: UWI Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bogues, A. (2002b). Politics, Nation and Postcolony: Caribbean Inflections. Small Axe, 11, 1–30.Google Scholar
  11. Boyd, D. A. C. (1988). Economic Management, Income Distribution, and Poverty in Jamaica. New York: Prager.Google Scholar
  12. Choung, M. E., & Manamela, M. G. (2018). Digital Inequality in Rural and Urban Settings Challenges of Education and Information in South African Youth Context. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 15(2), 186–197.Google Scholar
  13. Coleman, J. A. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94, Supplement: Organizations and Institutions: Sociological and Economic Approaches to the Analysis of Social Structure, S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Commons, J. R. (1931). Institutional Economics. American Economic Review, 21, 648–657.Google Scholar
  15. Computer Tax Confusion – Consumers Unable to Benefit from GCT Removal. (2001, May 1). The Daily Gleaner. Retrieved from http://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20010501/lead/lead1.html
  16. Daley-Morris, P. (2013). The Nature of Internet Use by Teens in Three Parishes in Jamaica. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(5), 1–14.Google Scholar
  17. De Haan, J. (2004). A Multifaceted Dynamic Model of the Digital Divide. I.T. & Society, 1(7), 66–88.Google Scholar
  18. Devonish, H. (2002, January 13). Language Rights, Justice and the Constitution. The Sunday Gleaner. Retrieved August 10. 2004. From http://www.jamaicagleaner.com/gleaner/20020113/focus/focus1.html
  19. DiMaggio, P., & Hargittai, E. (2001). From the ‘Digital Divide’ to ‘Digital Inequality’: Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases. Working Paper Series No. 15. Available at https://www.princeton.edu/culturalpolicy/workpap/WP15/DiMAggio+Hargittai.pdf
  20. DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Neuman, W. R., & Robinson, J. P. (2001). Social Implication of the Internet. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 307–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Celeste, C., & Shafer, S. (2004). From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use: A Literature Review and Agenda for Research on Digital Inequality. In K. Neckerman (Ed.), Social Inequality (pp. 355–400). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Dunkley, D. A. (2013). Agency of the Enslaved: Jamaica and the Culture of Freedom in the Atlantic World. London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  23. Dunn, H. (2019). Creative Resilience and Globalization from Within: Evolving Constructs for Analyzing Culture, Innovation and Enterprise in the Global South. Annals of the International Communication Association, 1.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2018.1547121.
  24. Dunn, H., & Boafo, K. (2010). Digital Domains and New Development Strategies: Revisiting ICT Policy-Making in the Global South (pp. 37–60). African Communication Research, University of Tanzania.Google Scholar
  25. Dunn, H., & Minto-Coy, I. D. (2012). Caribbean ICT’s: Strategic Issues, Challenges and Opportunities. In H. Dunn (Ed.), Ringtones of Opportunity: Policy, Technology and Access in Caribbean Communications. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Dunn, H., Williams, R., Thomas, M., & Brown, A. (2011). Caribbean ICT Indicators and Broadband Survey: Jamaica. Mona: Telecommunications Policy and Management (TPM) Programme, Mona School of Business, University of the West Indies Mona.Google Scholar
  27. Dupuy, A. (2001). The New World Order, Globalization and Caribbean Politics. In B. Meeks & F. Lindahl (Eds.), New Caribbean thought: A reader (pp. 521–536). Kingston: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  28. Easterly, W., & Levine, R. (1997). Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112, 1203–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gray, O. (2004). Demeaned but Empowered: Social Power of the Urban Poor in Jamaica. Kingston: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hamilton, H. G. (2010). Measuring Household ICT Access and Individual Use: Jamaica’s Experience. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  31. Hargittai, E. (2003). The Digital Divide and What to Do About It. In D. Jones (Ed.), New Economy Handbook. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Henke, H. (2004). Ariel’s Ethos: On the Moral Economy of Caribbean Existence. Cultural Critique, 56, 33–63.Google Scholar
  33. Henry, P. (2000). Caliban’s Reason: Introducing Afro-Caribbean Philosophy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Hintzen, P. C. (1997). Reproducing Domination, Identity and Legitimacy Constructs in the West Indies. Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, 3(1), 47–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hintzen, P. C. (2001). Rethinking Democracy in the Postnationalist State. In B. Meeks & F. Lindahl (Eds.), New Caribbean Thought: A Reader (pp. 104–126). Kingston: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hughes, W. (2006). Strategic Structural Transformation: The Case of Jamaica. Presented to the Conference on Globalization and the Problems of Development Convened by: La Asociacìon Nacional de Economistas y Contadores (ANEC).Google Scholar
  37. Jamaica Information Service. (2016, November 30). Government to Provide More Free Wi-Fi Hotspots. Retrieved from https://jis.gov.jm/govt-provide-free-wi-fi-hotspots/
  38. Kelly, R. (2007). Internet Use Among Young People in the Kingston Metropolitan Area. Kingston: Planning Institute of Jamaica.Google Scholar
  39. Khor, K. P. (2000). Globalization and the South Some Critical Issues. [Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development] [Web.] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://lccn.loc.gov/2004615301
  40. Levitt, K., & Best, L. (1975). Character of Caribbean Economy. In G. Beckford (Ed.), Caribbean Economy: Dependence and Backwardness (pp. 35–158). Mona: University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  41. Lewis, R. (2001). Reconsidering the Role of the Middle Class in Caribbean Politics. In B. Meeks & F. Lindahl (Eds.), New Caribbean Thought: A Reader (pp. 127–143). Kingston: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  42. McChesney, R. (2004). The Political Economy of International Communications. In P. Thomas & Z. Nain (Eds.), Who Own the Media? Global Trends and Resistances (pp. 3–22). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  43. Meeks, B. (1996). Radical Caribbean: From Black Power to Abu Bakr. Barbados: The Press, University of the West Indies.Google Scholar
  44. National Committee on Political Tribalism. (1997, July 23). Report of the National Committee on Political Tribalism. Kingston: Government of Jamaica Constitutional Reform Unit.Google Scholar
  45. Neale, W. C. (1987). Institutions. Journal of Economic Issues, 21, 177–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norris, P. (2001). Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty and the Internet Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Parada, J. J. (2001). Original institutional economics – A theory for the 21st century? Oeconomicus, 5(3), 46–60.Google Scholar
  48. Persson, T., & Tabellini, M. G. (2002). The Economic Effects of Constitutions: What do the Data Say. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. Planning Institute of Jamaica. (2009). Vision 2030: National Development Plan. Kingston: Planning Institute of Jamaica.Google Scholar
  50. Ragnedda, M., & Ruiu, M. (2017). Social Capital and the Three Levels of Digital Divide. In M. Ragnedda & G. Muschert (Eds.), Theorizing Digital Divides (pp. 21–34). (Routledge Advances in Sociology)). Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Richards Elliott, D., & Palmer, R. (2008). Institutions and Caribbean Economic Performance: Insights from Jamaica. Studies in Comparative International Development, 43, 181–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roberts, E. & Townsend, L. (2015). The Contribution of the Creative Economy to the Resilience of Rural Communities: Exploring Cultural and Digital. Capital. Sociologia Ruralis. https://doi.org/10.1111/soru.1207
  53. Robotham, D. (2007, October 28). Corruption and the Black Bourgeoisie. The Sunday Gleaner. Retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20071028/cleisure/cleisure2.html
  54. Sankatsing, G. (2016). Quest to Rescue our Future. Amsterdam: Rescue Our Future Foundation.Google Scholar
  55. Seaga, E. (2009). Edward Seaga: My Life and Leadership. Oxford: Macmillan Education.Google Scholar
  56. Sokoloff, K. L., & Engerman, S. (2000). History Lessons: Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. St. Rose, M. (2007). Culture and Economics: Is Socialization a Constraint on Our Development? In Economic Theory and Development Options for the Caribbean: The Sir Arthur Lewis Memorial Lectures 1996–2005, 107–123. Jamaica: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
  58. Statistical Institute of Jamaica. (2017). Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Indicators. Retrieved on February 1, 2019, from http://statinja.gov.jm/ict.aspx
  59. Stewart-McKoy, M. (2014). “Digitize Me”: Generating E-Learning Profiles for Media and Communication Students. Journal of Educators Online, 11(1).  https://doi.org/10.9743/JEO.2014.1.2
  60. Stone, C. (1994). The Jamaican Party System and Political Structure. In P. Lewis (Ed.), Jamaica: Preparing for the Twenty-first Century. Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  61. Teltscher, S., & Cervera-Ferri, J. (2009). Producing ICT Indicators in Developing Countries: Challenges and Initiatives, World Summit on the Information Society 2019. Retrieved from https://www.czso.cz/staticke/conference2009/proceedings/data/stat_society/teltscher_paper.pdf
  62. Van Dijk, J., & Hacker, K. (2003). The Digital Divide as a Complex and Dynamic Phenomenon. The Information Society, 19(4), 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Warschauer, M. (2002). Reconceptualizing the Digital Divide. First Monday, 7(7). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v7i7.967

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West IndiesMonaJamaica

Personalised recommendations