Transnational Governance and Global Diffusion of the Ombudsman Institution

  • Tero ErkkiläEmail author
Part of the Public Sector Organizations book series (PSO)


This chapter explores the process of diffusion and transnational governance concerning the ombudsman institution. In identifying different phases in the global spreading of the institution, this chapter explores the evolution of the transnational policy model and discusses the role of transnational organizations that facilitate its global spread. I also analyse the role of transnational policy discourses and indicators on good governance and human rights. A major factor in the global diffusion of the ombudsman institution is the UN’s effort to codify National Human Rights Institutions. The ombudsman offices of individual countries have also promoted the institution, leading to horizontal learning between countries. There are also regional associations and institutes for promoting the ombudsman. Recently, international organizations for development economics, such as the World Bank, have been active in promoting the idea. The ombudsman institution currently has significant symbolic value for countries adopting it, as well as for the international organizations promoting it.


Ombudsman Transnational governance Diffusion National Human Rights Institution International organizations Good governance 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Political Science, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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