Predicting Potential Years of Most Costly War Involving USA via ASF Approach

  • Yunong ZhangEmail author
  • Guanqun Yang
  • Ruifeng Wang
  • Liangjie Ming
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1074)


In this paper, the addition-subtraction frequency (ASF) approach is used to predict the years of potentially costly war, which may erupt with the United States of America in the future. In the numerical experiments involved in this paper, we select the years of historic 10 most expensive wars as input data, using three-variable, full-traversal ASF approach to predict the potential years of most costly war that may occur in the future. By using different 9-input data (removing one each year datum) to test the robustness of the experimental results, the final conclusion is that there is a relatively high possibility of most costly war occurring in 2021 or 2036–2038.


ASF (addition-subtraction frequency) approach War year prediction Consistency analysis Numerical experiments 



This work is supported by Shenzhen Science and Technology Plan Project (with number JCYJ20170818154936083). Kindly note that all authors of the paper are jointly of the first authorship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yunong Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Guanqun Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ruifeng Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Liangjie Ming
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Information Science and TechnologySun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Research Institute of Sun Yat-sen University in ShenzhenShenzhenChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Machine Intelligence and Advanced Computing, Ministry of EducationGuangzhouChina

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