Free-View, 3D Gaze-Guided Robotic Scrub Nurse
We introduce a novel 3D gaze-guided robotic scrub nurse (RN) and test the platform in simulated surgery to determine usability and acceptability with clinical teams. Surgeons and trained scrub nurses performed an ex vivo task on pig colon. Surgeons used gaze via wearable eye-tracking glasses to select surgical instruments on a screen, in turn initiating RN to deliver the instrument. Comparison was done between human- and robot-assisted tasks (HT vs RT). Real-time gaze-screen interaction was based on a framework developed with synergy of conventional wearable eye-tracking, motion capture system and RGB-D cameras. NASA-TLX and Van der Laan’s technology acceptance questionnaires were collected and analyzed. 10 teams of surgical trainees (ST) and scrub nurses (HN) participated. Overall, NASA-TLX feedback was positive. ST and HN revealed no statistically significant difference in overall task load. Task performance feedback was unaffected. Frustration was reported by ST. Overall, Van der Laan’s scores showed positive usefulness and satisfaction scores following RN use. There was no significant difference in task interruptions across HT vs RT. Similarly, no statistical difference was found in duration to task completion in both groups. Quantitative and qualitative feedback was positive. The source of frustration has been understood. Importantly, there was no significant difference in task workflow or operative time, with overall perceptions towards task performance remaining unchanged in HT vs RT.
KeywordsSmart operating room Gaze interactions Robotic scrub nurse.
This research project is supported by the NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre (BRC).
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