Assessing Welfare: Long-Term Responses

  • Donald M. Broom
  • Ken G. Johnson
Part of the Animal Welfare book series (AWNS, volume 19)


This chapter provides an account of the responses of animals to long-term disturbances and positive experiences. Measures of good welfare may be direct or may involve experimental investigation such as that of cognitive bias. Qualitative behavioural assessment can sometimes be useful but, as explained, should be used with caution. Methods for assessing welfare discussed include those of: reproduction, life expectancy, growth, heart and blood, immune system, body structure and injury, disease, brain, and behaviour. Measures of depression in humans and non-humans are described.


Welfare assessment Depression Cognitive bias Immunosuppression Brain measures 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald M. Broom
    • 1
  • Ken G. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine and St Catharine’s CollegeUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.School of Veterinary StudiesMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia

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