Adaptation, Regulation, Sentience and Brain Control

  • Donald M. Broom
  • Ken G. Johnson
Part of the Animal Welfare book series (AWNS, volume 19)


In this chapter, the central focus is on the mechanisms used by animals to control their interactions with all aspects of their world. In order to understand what is stressful and what situations lead to good or poor welfare, we need to know about the systems with which humans and other species regulate their lives. Research on motivation has long been a major aspect of animal welfare science. Since the brain is the source of control mechanisms its complexity of function is a key issue. Which animals are sentient and when during development do humans and other animals become sentient? What are the roles of the complex mechanisms that we call feelings and emotions? Terms defined in this chapter include: adaptation, homeostasis, sentience, causal factor, motivational state, gain, need, frustration, pain, feelings, emotion and suffering.


Adaptation Brain control Motivation Sentience Feelings Emotion 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald M. Broom
    • 1
  • Ken G. Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine and St Catharine’s CollegeUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.School of Veterinary StudiesMurdoch UniversityPerthAustralia

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