Optimal Placement and Co-ordination of UPFC with DG Using Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA)

  • K. AravindhanEmail author
  • S. Abinaya
  • N. Chidambararaj
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 35)


In modern power systems, there has been sizeable growth on integration of assorted renewable sources and multi varieties of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS). Here for the term renewable source, the Distributed Generation (DG) is used. The power produced from DG should be regulated by improving its voltage and minimize the power losses in the system. For this purpose, the FACTS devices such as UPFC is installed in the power system In this work, the problem considered is the optimum placement and coordination of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and Distributed Generation (DG). This could be done using Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA). The reduction of fuel cost and power loss minimization are the two main problem considered in this work. The standard IEEE thirty bus system is employed to visualize the quality of the planned system. Also the results obtained using WOA are compared with PSO. The comparison indicates that the WOA algorithm had superior features than PSO.


Distributed Generation (DG) Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) 


  1. 1.
    Reddy, P.D.P., Reddy, V.C.V., Manohar, T.G.: Whale optimization algorithm for optimal sizing of renewable resources for loss reduction in distribution systems. Renew.: Wind Water Solar 4, 3 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thishya Varshitha, U., Balamurugan, K.: Optimal placement of distributed generation with SVC for power loss reduction in distributed system. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 12 (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutta, S., Roy, P.K., Nandi, D.: Optimal location of UPFC controller in transmission network using hybrid chemical reaction optimization algorithm. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 64, 194–211 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chidambararaj, N., Chitra, K.: Demand response and facts devices used in restructured power systems to relive congestion. Int. J. Innov. Works Eng. Technol. (IJIWET) (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Das, S., Shegaonkar, M., Gupta, M., Acharjee, P.: Optimal placement of UPFC across a transmission line considering techno-economic aspects with physical limitation. In: Seventh International Symposium on Embedded Computing and System Design (ISED) (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dixit, M., Kundu, P., Jariwala, H.R.: Optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution system using artificial bee colony algorithm (2016). 978-1-5090-0128-6/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEEGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sen, D., Acharjee, P.: Optimal placement of UPFC based on techno-economic criteria by hybrid CSA-CRO algorithm. In: IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (2017)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Varghese, J.P., Ashok, S., Kumaravel, S.: Optimal siting and sizing of DGs for congestion relief in transmission line. In: IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC) (2017)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tavakoli, F.H., Hojjat, M., Javidi, M.H.: Determining optimal location and capacity of DG units based on system uncertainties and optimal congestion management in transmission network. In: 25th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE) (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chidambararaj, N., Chitra, K.: Relieving congestion and minimizing cost by appropriate allocation of UPFC device in a deregulated market using metaheuristic algorithm. SYLWAN J. (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EEESt. Joseph’s College of EngineeringChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations