Advertisement

Statement Voting

  • Bingsheng ZhangEmail author
  • Hong-Sheng Zhou
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11598)

Abstract

The conventional (election) voting systems, e.g., representative democracy, have many limitations and often fail to serve the best interest of the people in a collective decision-making process. To address this issue, the concept of liquid democracy has been emerging as an alternative decision-making model to make better use of “the wisdom of crowds”. However, there is no known cryptographically secure e-voting implementation that supports liquid democracy.

In this work, we propose a new voting concept called statement voting, which can be viewed as a natural extension of the conventional voting approaches. In the statement voting, instead of defining a concrete election candidate, each voter can define a statement in his/her ballot but leave the vote “undefined” during the voting phase. During the tally phase, the (conditional) actions expressed in the statement will be carried out to determine the final vote. We initiate the study of statement voting under the Universal Composability (UC) framework, and propose several construction frameworks together with their instantiations. As an application, we show how statement voting can be used to realize a UC-secure liquid democracy voting system. We remark that our statement voting can be extended to enable more complex voting and generic ledger-based non-interactive multi-party computation. We believe that the statement voting concept opens a door for constructing a new class of e-voting schemes.

Notes

Acknowledgement

We thank Jeremy Clark and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. The first author was partially supported by EPSRC grant EP/P034578/1. The second author was partially supported by NSF award #1801470. This work is also supported by Ergo platform, Fractal Platform, and Blockchain institute.

References

  1. 1.
    Adhocracy. Adhocracy official website. Accessed 21 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adida, B.: Helios: web-based open-audit voting. In: USENIX Security (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alwen, J., Ostrovsky, R., Zhou, H.-S., Zikas, V.: Incoercible multi-party computation and universally composable receipt-free voting. In: Gennaro, R., Robshaw, M. (eds.) CRYPTO 2015, Part II. LNCS, vol. 9216, pp. 763–780. Springer, Heidelberg (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48000-7_37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baum, C., Damgård, I., Orlandi, C.: Publicly auditable secure multi-party computation. In: Abdalla, M., De Prisco, R. (eds.) SCN 2014. LNCS, vol. 8642, pp. 175–196. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10879-7_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ben-Sasson, E., et al.: Zerocash: decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin. In: 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 459–474. IEEE Computer Society Press, May 2014Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canetti, R.: Universally composable security: a new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In: 42nd FOCS, pp. 136–145. IEEE Computer Society Press, October 2001Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Canetti, R.: Universally composable signatures, certification and authentication. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2003/239 (2003). http://eprint.iacr.org/2003/239
  8. 8.
    Canetti, R., Fischlin, M.: Universally composable commitments. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, pp. 19–40. Springer, Heidelberg (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-44647-8_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canetti, R., Krawczyk, H., Nielsen, J.B.: Relaxing chosen-ciphertext security. In: Boneh, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2003. LNCS, vol. 2729, pp. 565–582. Springer, Heidelberg (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45146-4_33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canetti, R., Kushilevitz, E., Lindell, Y.: On the limitations of universally composable two-party computation without set-up assumptions. In: Biham, E. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2656, pp. 68–86. Springer, Heidelberg (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-39200-9_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chaidos, P., Cortier, V., Fuchsbauer, G., Galindo, D.: Beleniosrf: a non-interactive receipt-free electronic voting scheme. In: CCS 2016, pp. 1614–1625. ACM, New York (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chase, M., Kohlweiss, M., Lysyanskaya, A., Meiklejohn, S.: Malleable proof systems and applications. In: Pointcheval, D., Johansson, T. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2012. LNCS, vol. 7237, pp. 281–300. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29011-4_18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chaum, D., Ryan, P.Y.A., Schneider, S.: A practical voter-verifiable election scheme. In: di Vimercati, S.C., Syverson, P., Gollmann, D. (eds.) ESORICS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3679, pp. 118–139. Springer, Heidelberg (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11555827_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Daian, P., Kell, T., Miers, I., Juels, A.: On-Chain Vote Buying and the Rise of Dark DAOs (2018). http://hackingdistributed.com/2018/07/02/on-chain-vote-buying/
  15. 15.
    Degrave, J.: Getopinionated. GitHub repository. Accessed 21 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ford, B.: Delegative democracy (2002). http://www.brynosaurus.com/deleg/deleg.pdf
  17. 17.
    Froelicher, D., et al.: Unlynx: a decentralized system for privacy-conscious data sharing. Proc. Privacy Enhancing Technol. 4, 152–170 (2017)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Groth, J.: Evaluating security of voting schemes in the universal composability framework. In: Jakobsson, M., Yung, M., Zhou, J. (eds.) ACNS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3089, pp. 46–60. Springer, Heidelberg (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24852-1_4CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Groth, J.: Rerandomizable and replayable adaptive chosen ciphertext attack secure cryptosystems. In: Naor, M. (ed.) TCC 2004. LNCS, vol. 2951, pp. 152–170. Springer, Heidelberg (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24638-1_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hardt, S., Lopes, L.: Google votes: a liquid democracy experiment on a corporate social network. Technical Disclosure Commons (2015). http://www.tdcommons.org/dpubs_series/79
  21. 21.
    Kiayias, A., Zacharias, T., Zhang, B.: DEMOS-2: scalable E2E verifiable elections without random oracles. In: Ray, I., Li, N., Kruegel, C. (eds.) ACM CCS 2015, pp. 352–363. ACM Press, October 2015Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kiayias, A., Zacharias, T., Zhang, B.: End-to-end verifiable elections in the standard model. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2015, Part II. LNCS, vol. 9057, pp. 468–498. Springer, Heidelberg (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_16CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kulyk, O., Marky, K., Neumann, S., Volkamer, M.: Introducing proxy voting to helios. In: ARES, pp. 98–106. IEEE Computer Society (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kulyk, O., Neumann, S., Marky, K., Budurushi, J., Volkamer, M.: Coercion-resistant proxy voting. In: ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kulyk, O., Neumann, S., Marky, K., Volkamer, M.: Enabling vote delegation for boardroom voting. In: Brenner, M., et al. (eds.) FC 2017. LNCS, vol. 10323, pp. 419–433. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    LiquidFeedback. LiquidFeedback official website. Accessed 21 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moran, T., Naor, M.: Receipt-free universally-verifiable voting with everlasting privacy. In: Dwork, C. (ed.) CRYPTO 2006. LNCS, vol. 4117, pp. 373–392. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11818175_22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Prabhakaran, M., Rosulek, M.: Rerandomizable RCCA encryption. In: Menezes, A. (ed.) CRYPTO 2007. LNCS, vol. 4622, pp. 517–534. Springer, Heidelberg (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74143-5_29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Democracy Earth. The social smart contract. An open source white paper, 1 September 2017. Accessed 21 Oct 2017Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Unruh, D., Müller-Quade, J.: Universally composable incoercibility. In: Rabin, T. (ed.) CRYPTO 2010. LNCS, vol. 6223, pp. 411–428. Springer, Heidelberg (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-14623-7_22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhai, E., Wolinsky, D.I., Chen, R., Syta, E., Teng, C., Ford, B.: Anonrep: towards tracking-resistant anonymous reputation. In: NSDI 2016, pp. 583–596 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Financial Cryptography Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lancaster UniversityBailriggUK
  2. 2.Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations