Bitcoin Security Under Temporary Dishonest Majority

  • Georgia AvarikiotiEmail author
  • Lukas Käppeli
  • Yuyi Wang
  • Roger Wattenhofer
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11598)


We prove Bitcoin is secure under temporary dishonest majority. We assume the adversary can corrupt a specific fraction of parties and also introduce crash failures, i.e., some honest participants are offline during the execution of the protocol. We demand a majority of honest online participants on expectation. We explore three different models and present the requirements for proving Bitcoin’s security in all of them: we first examine a synchronous model, then extend to a bounded delay model and last we consider a synchronous model that allows message losses.


Bitcoin Security Dishonest majority Offline players Sleepy model 



We thank Dionysis Zindros for the helpful and productive discussions. Y. W. is partially supported by X-Order Lab.


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Copyright information

© International Financial Cryptography Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georgia Avarikioti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lukas Käppeli
    • 1
  • Yuyi Wang
    • 1
  • Roger Wattenhofer
    • 1
  1. 1.ETH ZurichZürichSwitzerland

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