Medications Used for the Renal System

  • Roseline Elsie AgyekumEmail author


This chapter examines the commonly prescribed drugs used for the treatment and management of certain clinical conditions that alter the excretory functions of the kidneys. The drugs reviewed include those that affect water and sodium losses such as diuretics as well as drugs that alter the pH of the urine (alkalizing agents), for example, sodium and potassium citrate and ammonium chloride. These drugs are reviewed in relation to their pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, clinical indications, contraindications, drug–drug interactions and unwanted effects. The clinical uses of these drugs are reviewed in the context of the management of what is termed volume overload, hypertension and heart failure.


Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Osmotic diuretics Loop diuretics Thaizide diuretics Potassium-sparing diuretics Combined diuretics 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing Midwifery & Palliative Care, King’s College LondonLondonUK

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