Advertisement

Adverse Drug Reactions and Drug Interactions

  • Nicola HusainEmail author
Chapter
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Adverse drug reactions are unwanted effects from medicines, and these can range from mild or irritating to severe or life-threatening. They are a significant cause of mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions and a common reason why patients do not take their medicines as instructed. Identification of adverse drug reactions can be complex because symptoms are often non-specific and because reactions do not always occur immediately after a medicine is given.

Keywords

Adverse drug reaction Drug interaction Pharmacokinetic Pharmacodynamic Polypharmacy Pharmacogenetic 

References

  1. Baxter K, Preston CL (eds) (2013) Stockley’s drug interactions: a source book of interactions, their mechanisms, clinical importance and management, 10th edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Belay ED, Bresee JS, Holman RC, Khan AS, Shahriari A, Schonberger LB (1999) Reye’s syndrome in the United States from 1981 through 1997. N Engl J Med 340(18):1377–1382PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Brater DC (1999) Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on renal function: focus on cyclooxygenase-2—selective inhibition. Am J Med 107(6):65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castleden CM, Kaye CM, Parsons RL (1975) The effect of age on plasma levels of propranolol and practolol in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2(4):303–306PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chatterjee K, Zhang J, Honbo N, Karliner JS (2010) Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy. Cardiology 115(2):155–162PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Currie GM, Wheat JM, Kiat H (2011) Pharmacokinetic considerations for digoxin in older people. Open Cardiovasc Med J 5:130–135PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Arcy PF, McElnay JC (1987) Drug-antacid interactions: assessment of clinical importance. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 21(7–8):607–617PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawes M, Chowienczyk PJ (2001) Pharmacokinetics in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 15(6):819–826PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorian P (2010) Clinical pharmacology of dronedarone: implications for the therapy of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 15(S4):15S–18SPubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Frenia ML, Long KS (1992) Methotrexate and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug interactions. Ann Pharmacother 26(2):234–237PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Garty M, Hurwitz A (1980) Effect of cimetidine and antacids on gastrointestinal absorption of tetracycline. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28(2):203–207PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, Shader RI (1991) Clinical pharmacokinetics of anxiolytics and hypnotics in the elderly. Therapeutic considerations (Part I). Clin Pharmacokinet 21(3):165–177PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Hennessy M, Kelleher D, Spiers JP, Barry M, Kavanagh P, Back D, Mulcahy F, Feely J (2002) St Johns wort increases expression of P-glycoprotein: implications for drug interactions. Br J Clin Pharmacol 53(1):75–82PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hesselink DA, Van Hest RM, Mathot RAA, Bonthuis F, Weimar W, De Bruin RWF, Van Gelder T (2005) Cyclosporine interacts with mycophenolic acid by inhibiting the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Am J Transplant 5(5):987–994PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hetherington S, Hughes AR, Mosteller M, Shortino D, Baker KL, Spreen W, Lai E, Davies K, Handley A, Dow DJ, Fling ME, Stocum M, Bowman C, Thurmond LM, Roses AD (2002) Genetic variations in HLA-B region and hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir. Lancet 359:1121–1122PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoogkamer JF, Kleinbloesem CH (1995) The effect of milk consumption on the pharmacokinetics of fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin in healthy volunteers. Drugs 49(S2):346–348PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobson TA (2004) Comparative pharmacokinetic interaction profiles of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin when coadministered with cytochrome P450 inhibitors. Am J Cardiol 94(9):1140–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson TN (2003) The development of drug metabolising enzymes and their influence on the susceptibility to adverse drug reactions in children. Toxicology 192(1):37–48PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Joshua L, Devi P, Guido S (2009) Adverse drug reactions in medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18(7):639–645PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Kara M, Hasinoff BB, McKay DW, Campbell NR (1991) Clinical and chemical interactions between iron preparations and ciprofloxacin. Br J Clin Pharmacol 31(3):257–261PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khaliq Y, Gallicano K, Venance S, Kravcik S, Cameron DW (2000) Effect of ketoconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Pharmacol Ther 68(6):637–646PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein CE, Chiu YL, Cai Y, Beck K, King KR, Causemaker SJ, Doan T, Esslinger HU, Podsadecki TJ, Hanna GJ (2008) Effects of acid-reducing agents on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. J Clin Pharmacol 48(5):553–562PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Kudriakova TB, Sirota LA, Rozova GI, Gorkov VA (1992) Autoinduction and steady-state pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and its major metabolites. Br J Clin Pharmacol 33(6):611–615PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lange D, Pavao JH, Wu J, Klausner M (1997) Effect of a cola beverage on the bioavailability of itraconazole in the presence of H2 blockers. J Clin Pharmacol 37(6):535–540PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Lantz MS, Buchalter E, Giambanco V (1999) St. John’s wort and antidepressant drug interactions in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 12(1):7–10PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Leenderte A (2008) Frequency of and risk factors for preventable medication-related hospital admissions in the Netherlands. Arch Intern Med 168(17):1890–1896Google Scholar
  27. Ludden TM (1991) Nonlinear pharmacokinetics: clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 20(6):429–446PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Manninen V, Melin J, Apajalahti A, Karesoja M (1973) Altered absorption of digoxin in patients given propantheline and metoclopramide. Lancet 301(7800):398–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martin E, Fanconi A, Kälin P, Zwingelstein C, Crevoisier C, Ruch W, Brodersen R (1993) Ceftriaxone-bilirubin-albumin interactions in the neonate: an in vivo study. Eur J Pediatr 152(6):530–534PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Mazziotti G, Angeli A, Bilezikian JP, Canalis E, Giustina A (2006) Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: an update. Trends Endocrinol Metab 17(4):144–149PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Medicines Act (1968) Chapter 67. HMSO, London. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1968/67/pdfs/ukpga_19680067_en.pdf. Accessed 01/05/2019
  32. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (2012) On-line reporting site for the Yellow Card Scheme [online]. https://yellowcard.mhra.gov.uk/
  33. Naderer OJ, Dupuis RE, Heinzen EL, Wiwattanawongsa K, Johnson MW, Smith PC (2005) The influence of norfloxacin and metronidazole on the disposition of mycophenolate mofetil. J Clin Pharmacol 45(2):219–226PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, Sandor P, Ruiz I, Roberts EA, Janecek E, Domecq C, Greenblatt DJ (1981) A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther 30(2):239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pauwels O (2002) Factors contributing to carbamazepine-macrolide interactions. Pharmacol Res 45(4):291–298PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Pirmohamed M, James S, Meakin S, Green C, Scott AK, Walley TJ, Farrar K, Park BK, Breckenridge AM (2004) Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients. Br Med J 329(7456):15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rauch A, Nolan D, Martin A, McKinnon E, Almeida C, Mallal S (2006) Prospective genetic screening decreases the incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in the Western Australian HIV cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 43(1):99–102PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Rawlins MD, Thompson JW (1991) Mechanisms of adverse drug reactions. In: Davies DM (ed) Textbook of adverse drug reactions, 4th edn. Oxford Medical Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Roby CA, Anderson GD, Kantor E, Dryer DA, Burstein AH (2000) St John’s Wort: effect on CYP3A4 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 67(5):451–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rolan PE (1994) Plasma protein binding displacement interactions—why are they still regarded as clinically important? Br J Clin Pharmacol 37(2):125–128PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rowe JW, Andres R, Tobin JD, Norris AH, Shock NW (1976) The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Gerontol 31(2):155–163PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain & British Medical Association (2016–2017) British National Formulary 72. BMJ Publishing Group & Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Sanchez AR, Rogers RS, Sheridan PJ (2004) Tetracycline and other tetracycline-derivative staining of the teeth and oral cavity. Int J Dermatol 43(10):709–715PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Sanoski CA, Bauman JL (2002) Clinical observations with the amiodarone/warfarin interaction: dosing relationships with long-term therapy. Chest 121(1):19–23PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Seden K, Dickinson L, Khoo S, Back D (2010) Grapefruit-drug interactions. Drugs 70(18):2373–2407PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Sivagnanam S, Deleu D (2003) Red man syndrome. Crit Care 7(2):119–120PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Sweetman SC (ed) (2011) Martindale: the complete drug reference, 37th edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Symonds W, Cutrell A, Edwards M, Steel H, Spreen B, Powell G, McGuirk S, Hetherington S (2002) Risk factor analysis of hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir. Clin Ther 24(4):565–573PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Tenni P, Lalich DL, Byrne MJ (1989) Life threatening interaction between tamoxifen and warfarin. Br Med J 298(6666):93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Trissel LA (ed) (2012) Handbook on injectable drugs, 17th edn. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, BethesdaGoogle Scholar
  51. Ulrich RG (2007) Idiosyncratic toxicity: a convergence of risk factors. Annu Rev Med 58:17–34PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Weinblatt ME (1991) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicity: increased risk in the elderly. Scand J Rheumatol 20(S91):9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weinshilboum R (2001) Thiopurine pharmacogenetics: clinical and molecular studies of thiopurine methyltransferase. Drug Metab Dispos 29(4):601–605PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. West DP, Worobec S, Solomon LM (1981) Pharmacology and toxicology of infant skin. J Investig Dermatol 76:147–150PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Working Group of the Resuscitation Council (UK) (2008) Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions. Guidelines for healthcare providers. Resuscitation Council (UK), LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. World Health Organisation (1970) International drug monitoring: the role of the hospital—a WHO report. Ann Pharmacother 4(4):101–110Google Scholar
  57. Youngster I, Arcavi L, Schechmaster R, Akayzen Y, Popliski H, Shimonov J, Beig S, Berkovitch M (2010) Medications and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an evidence-based review. Drug Saf 33(9):713–726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Zimm S, Collins JM, O’Neill D, Chabner BA, Poplack DG (1983) Inhibition of first-pass metabolism in cancer chemotherapy: interaction of 6-mercaptopurine and allopurinol. Clin Pharmacol Ther 34(6):810–817PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Aronson JK, Dukes MNG, Meyler L (2006) Meyler’s side effects of drugs: the international encyclopedia of adverse drug reactions and interactions, 15th edn. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Baxter K, Preston CL (eds) (2013) Stockley’s drug interactions: a source book of interactions, their mechanisms, clinical importance and management, 10th edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Davies DM, Ferner RE, De Glanville H (1998) Davies textbook of adverse drug reactions, 5th edn. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Karalliedde L, Clarke SFJ, Collignon U, Karalliedde J (2010) Adverse drug interactions: a handbook for prescribers. Hodder Education, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lee A (2006) Adverse drug reactions, 2nd edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Sweetman SC (2011) Martindale: the complete drug reference, 37th edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Williamson EM, Driver S, Baxter K (eds) (2009) Stockley’s herbal medicines interactions: a guide to the interactions of herbal medicines, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with conventional medicines, 2nd edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Life Sciences & MedicineKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations