Invisible Victims

  • Stevie-Jade HardyEmail author
  • Neil Chakraborti
Part of the Palgrave Hate Studies book series (PAHS)


This chapter is framed around three key barriers which victims face in relation to accessing justice and support. This chapter highlights problems associated with levels of awareness and confidence amongst hate crime victims; with the appropriateness and effectiveness of existing criminal justice interventions; and with knowledge and uptake of support services. It demonstrates that there is no ‘one-size fits all’ approach to delivering support to hate crime victims.


Hate crime Victim support Reporting Recording Justice 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of CriminologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

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